What Every Engineer Should Know About Business Communication

What Every Engineer Should Know About Business Communication
اسم المؤلف
John X. Wang
التاريخ
4 سبتمبر 2017
المشاهدات
التقييم
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سلسلة مايجب على كل مهندس معرفته عن
What Every Engineer Should Know About Business Communication
John X. Wang
Contents
Preface xv
About.the.Author . xvii
1 Analyze Communication Purpose and Audience .1
1.1. How.Engineers.Learn 1
1.1.1. Recognize.That.Every.Engineer.Is.Unique .2
1.1.2. Gain.Trust 2
1.1.3. Solve.Engineering.Problems .2
1.1.4. Respect.Experience.and.Ability .3
1.1.5. Control.the.Learning.Experience .4
1.1.6. Allow.Time.to.Alter.Perceptions 4
1.1.7. Hold.the.Engineer’s.Interest .4
1.1.8. Present.Meaningful.Contents .5
1.2. How.Engineers.Are.Persuaded 5
1.3. Speak.or.Write:.Select.the.Right.Communication.Channel .9
1.4. Consider.Your.Communication.Purpose.and.Audience 9
Bibliography 11
Section 1: Speak Your Way to Engineering Success
2 Projecting the Image of the Engineering Profession . 15
2.1. Overcome.Anxiety . 15
2.1.1. Why.Are.We.Afraid.of.Making.Presentations? . 16
2.1.2. Steps.You.Can.Take.to.Reduce.the.Fear 16
2.1.2.1. Prepare,.Prepare,.and.Prepare 16
2.1.2.2. Have.a.Backup . 17
2.1.2.3. Reduce.Your.Fear.of.the.Audience . 17
2.1.2.4. Practice,.Practice,.and.Practice 17
2.2. Primary.Impact:.Nonverbal.Body.Language . 18
2.2.1. Eye.Contact 18
2.2.2. Posture .20
2.2.3. Hand.Gestures 20
2.2.4. Facial.Expression 21
2.2.5. Plan.and.Rehearse.Your.Movements .22
2.3. Secondary.Impact:.Control.Your.Vocal.Quality,.Volume,.
and.Pace .22
2.3.1. Volume .23
2.3.2. Pace . 24
2.3.3. Vocal.Expression . 24
2.3.4. Fillers 24 Contents
2.4. Optimize.Your.Presentation.Environment 25
2.4.1. Room.Size 25
2.4.2. Light .25
2.4.3. Temperature.and.Ventilation 25
2.4.4. Room.Layout .26
2.4.5. Equipment .26
2.4.6. Noise .26
2.4.7. Access .26
2.4.8. Time.of.Day .26
Bibliography 27
3 Presentation Aids 29
3.1. Engineering:.The.Real.da.Vinci.Code .29
3.2. Speaking.Visually—Guidelines.for.Using.Presentation.Aids . 31
3.3. Choosing.among.Options .33
3.4. Creating.Visuals.with.Impact 34
3.5. Delivering.with.Visuals 37
Bibliography 38
4 Organize Your Talk . 41
4.1. Planning.Your.Talk 41
4.2. Conducting.an.Audience.Analysis:.39.Questions .42
4.3. Organizing.Your.Talk.in.Seven.Easy.Stages 44
4.4. Getting.Attention.and.Keeping.Interest .46
4.4.1. Questioning.Techniques 47
4.4.2. Analogies .47
4.4.3. Inside.Story 47
4.4.4. Personal.Experience .47
4.4.5. Startling.Statistics .48
4.4.6. Humor 48
4.4.7. Audience.Participation 48
4.4.8. Hooks .48
4.4.9. Handouts .48
4.5. “Five.Minutes.Early”—Time.Management.for.
Your.Presentation .49
4.6. Delivering.Your.Introduction .49
4.6.1. Greet.Your.Audience 50
4.6.2. Capture.Your.Audience’s.Attention .50
4.6.3. Establish.Your.Credibility .50
4.6.4. Preview.Your.Talk 50
4.7. Presenting.Your.Conclusion . 51
4.7.1. Signal.the.End.of.Your.Talk 51
4.7.2. Summarize.Your.Main.Points 51
4.7.3. Suggest.a.Call.to.Action.or.Provide.a.
Memorable.Statement 51Contents i
4.7.4. Thank.Your.Audience.for.Listening 51
Bibliography 52
5 Handling Audience Response . 55
5.1. Create.the.Environment 56
5.1.1. Encourage.Questions .56
5.1.2. If.No.Questions .56
5.2. Handle.with.C.A.R.E .57
5.2.1. C.=.Clarify .57
5.2.2. A.=.Amplify 57
5.2.3. R.=.Respond 58
5.2.4. E.=.Encourage .58
5.3. Deal.with.Hostile.Questions 59
5.3.1. Address.Emotions 59
5.3.2. Separate.Content.from.Tone.and.Restate 59
5.3.3. Address.Issues 60
5.3.4. Address.the.Audience 60
5.4. Deal.with.Other.Types.of.Questions . 61
5.4.1. Dealing.with.Rambling.Questions 61
5.4.2. When.You.Have.No.Answers . 61
5.5. Control.the.Q&A.Session 62
5.5.1. Manage.Your.Time . 62
5.5.2. Wrapping.Up . 62
5.6. Thinking.on.Your.Feet 63
5.6.1. Listen 63
5.6.2. Pause.to.Organize 63
5.6.3. Repeat.the.Question .64
5.6.4. Focus.on.One.Main.Point.and.Support.It .64
5.6.5. Summarize.and.Stop.(SAS) .64
5.6.6. The.Q&A.Slide 65
Bibliography 65
Section 2: Write Your Way for Business Impact
6 Organizing for Emphasis . 69
6.1. Make.Your.Bottom.Line.the.Top.Line .69
6.2. Purpose.Statement.and.Blueprints 71
6.2.1. Writing.Effective.Purpose.Statements .71
6.2.2. Blueprinting:.Planning.Your.Writing 72
6.3. Open.Long.Reports.with.a.Summary .73
6.4. Use.More.Topic.Sentences . 74
6.5. Develop.Headings 75
6.6. Structure.Vertical.Lists 77
Bibliography 80ii Contents
7 Write As If Talking to Your Engineering Associates . 83
7.1. Use.Personal.Pronouns .84
7.2. Rely.on.Everyday.Words .85
7.3. Use.Short,.Spoken.Transitions .86
7.3.1. The.Function.and.Importance.of.Transitions .87
7.3.2. How.Transitions.Work .87
7.4. Keep.Sentences.Short .88
7.5. Reach.Out.to.Your.Engineering.Readers.by.
Asking.Questions .89
7.6. “5.Whys”—A.Technique.for.Engineering.Problem.Solving 89
7.6.1. What.Is.“5.Whys”? .90
7.6.2. What.Are.the.Benefts.of.the.5.Whys? .90
7.6.3. When.Is.5.Whys.Most.Useful? 90
7.6.4. How.to.Complete.the.5.Whys . 91
7.6.5. 5.Whys.Examples 91
Bibliography 92
8 “Trim” Your Expressions 95
8.1. Introduction 95
8.2. Prune.Wordy.Expressions 96
8.3. Use.Strong.Verbs 97
8.4. Cut.Doublings.and.Noun.Strings 98
8.5. Eliminate.Unnecessary.Determiners.and.Modifers 100
8.6. Change.Phrases.into.Single.Words . 101
8.7. Change.Unnecessary.Clauses.into.Phrases.or.Single.Words 101
8.8. Avoid.Overusing.“It.is”.and.“There.is” 101
8.9. Eight.Steps.for.Lean.Writing 102
Bibliography 104
9 Write Actively—Engineering Is about Actions . 107
9.1. Active.Voice:.“Albert.Einstein.Wrote.the.Theory.of.Relativity” . 107
9.2. How.to.Recognize.the.Passive.Voice . 108
9.3. How.to.Write.Actively—Use.Three.Cures . 110
9.3.1. Put.a.Doer.before.the.Verb 110
9.3.2. Drop.Part.of.the.Verb . 111
9.3.3. Change.the.Verb . 111
9.4. Write.Passively.for.Good.Reasons.Only . 111
9.5. Theory.of.Completed.Staff.Work . 113
9.5.1. Conclude.before.Analyzing 113
9.5.2. Present.Answers,.Not.Questions . 113
9.5.3. Elaborate.Only.When.Necessary . 114
9.5.4. Sell.Your.Ideas.More.Readily 114
9.5.5. Would.You.Sign.the.Document? 114
9.5.6. Preparing.Completed.Staff.Work . 114
Bibliography 117Contents iii
Section 3: Integrating Your Speaking and Writing Skills
10 Everyday Engineering Communications—E-Mails,
Phone Calls, and Memos 121
10.1. Effective.E-mail.Writing:.Seven.Things.to.Remember . 121
10.1.1. Stop,.Think,.Then.Write.(or.Don’t!) .122
10.1.2. Write.an.Informative.and.Engaging.Subject.Line 122
10.1.3. Keep.the.Message.Focused.and.Readable .122
10.1.4. Identify.Yourself.Clearly 123
10.1.5. Keep.Your.Cool 123
10.1.6. Proofread 123
10.1.7. Wait.a.Moment.before.Hitting.“Send” .123
10.2. How.to.Be.Productive.on.the.Phone . 124
10.2.1. Be.Sharp.and.Professional . 124
10.2.2. Three.Distinct.Stages 125
10.2.3. Managing.Phone.Time .125
10.3. “Memos.Solve.Problems” . 126
10.3.1. Keep.Your.Memo.Structured 127
10.3.2. Keep.Your.Memo.Short.and.to.the.Point .128
Bibliography 129
11 Visuals for Engineering Presentation—Engineers Think
in Pictures . 131
11.1. Optimize.Slide.Layout 131
11.1.1. Create.Slides.That.the.Audience.Can.Read . 132
11.1.2. Create.Slides.That.the.Audience.Can.Remember . 133
11.2. Display.Engineering.Data.Effectively .134
11.2.1. Show.Objects.with.Photographs,.Drawings,.and.
Diagrams 135
11.2.2. Show.Numeric.Data.with.Tables,.Bar.Charts,.and.
Line.Graphs 136
11.2.2.1. Bar.Charts . 137
11.2.2.2. Line.Graphs 138
11.2.2.3. Pie.Charts 139
11.2.2.4. Formatting.Requirements 140
11.3. How.to.Develop.Effective.Graphics 140
Bibliography 141
12 Write Winning Grant Proposals 143
12.1. Know.Your.Audience 143
12.2. Understand.Your.Goal.and.Marketing.Strategy . 144
12.3. Select.the.Correct.Writing.Style . 144
12.4. Organize.Your.Proposal.around.the.Four.Ps . 145
12.4.1. Title.Page 146
12.4.2. Executive.Summary 147
12.4.3. Introduction . 147
12.4.4. Literature.Review 148iv Contents
12.4.5. Project.Description.or.Program.(Objective) 148
12.4.6. Project.Narrative 149
12.4.7. Project.Evaluation . 149
12.4.8. Personnel 150
12.4.9. Budget.and.Budget.Justifcation 151
12.4.10.Timelines 152
12.4.11.Qualifcations . 152
12.5. A.Brief.Checklist.before.Submitting.Your.Proposal . 152
Bibliography 154
13 How to Effectively Prepare Engineering Reports . 157
13.1. Writing.an.Effective.Progress.Report . 157
13.1.1. Functions.of.Progress.Reports 158
13.1.2. Format.of.Progress.Reports . 158
13.1.2.1. Heading . 158
13.1.2.2. Purpose.Statement . 159
13.1.2.3. Background 159
13.1.2.4. Work.Completed 160
13.1.2.5. Problems . 160
13.1.2.6. Work.Scheduled . 161
13.1.2.7. Status.Assessment . 161
13.1.3. Checklist.for.Progress.Reports 162
13.2. Develop.Informative.Design.Reports . 162
13.2.1. How.to.Write.a.Summary 163
13.2.2. How.to.Write.an.“Introduction” . 163
13.2.3. How.to.Present.Your.Discussion 163
13.2.4. How.to.Deliver.Your.Conclusion 165
13.3. Summary . 166
Bibliography 166
14 Listening—Interactive Communication about
Engineering Risk . 169
14.1. Listening—A.Forgotten.Risk.Communication.Skill . 169
14.2. Listening—Harder.Than.Speaking.and.Writing 171
14.2.1. What.Causes.Listening.to.Fail? . 171
14.3. How.to.Listen.to.Voices.of.Customers.about.Risk 172
14.4. Listen.Attentively:.Understanding.What.Drives.
Perceived.Risk . 174
14.4.1. Get.over.Yourself;.Give.the.Speaker.a.Solo . 175
14.4.2. Stop.Multitasking 175
14.4.3. Recap.Regularly . 176
14.4.4. Use.Connecting.Words . 176
14.4.5. Use.Body.Language 177
14.5. Thirteen.Questions.about.Risk.Communication 178
Bibliography 178
Index
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