Unmanned Aircraft Design – A Review of Fundamentals

Unmanned Aircraft Design – A Review of Fundamentals
اسم المؤلف
Mohammad H. Sadraey
التاريخ
10 مارس 2018
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Unmanned Aircraft Design – A Review of Fundamentals
A Review of Fundamentals
Mohammad H. Sadraey
Southern New Hampshire University
Contents
Preface xiii
Part I xv
1 Design Fundamentals 1
1.1 Introduction . 1
1.2 UAV Classifcations . 3
1.3 Design Project Planning . 6
1.4 Decision Making . 6
1.5 Design Criteria, Objectives, and Priorities 7
1.6 Feasibility Analysis 9
1.7 Design Groups 10
1.8 Design Process 11
1.9 Systems Engineering Approach . 12
1.10 Conceptual Design . 15
1.11 Preliminary Design 20
1.12 Detail Design . 21
1.13 Design Review, Evaluation, and Feedback . 23
1.14 Questions 24
2 Design Disciplines 27
2.1 Introduction 27
2.2 Aerodynamic Design . 28
2.3 Structural Design 30
2.4 Propulsion System Design . 32
2.5 Landing Gear Design 33
2.6 Mechanical/Power Transmission Systems Design . 35
2.7 Control Surfaces Design 37
2.8 Questions 44
Part II . 47
3 Fundamentals of Autopilot . 49
3.1 Introduction 49viii
3.2 Primary Subsystems of an Autopilot 49
3.3 Dynamic Modeling 50
3.4 UAV Dynamics . 53
3.5 Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 54
3.6 Stability and Control Derivatives 56
3.7 Transfer Function 57
3.8 State-Space Model . 58
3.9 Linearization . 58
3.10 Autopilot Design Process 60
3.11 Questions 61
4 Control System Design 63
4.1 Introduction 63
4.2 Fundamentals of Control Systems . 64
4.3 UAV Control Architecture . 67
4.3.1 Control Categories 67
4.3.2 Cruise Control . 69
4.4 Flight Control Requirements . 70
4.4.1 Longitudinal Control Requirements 70
4.4.2 Roll Control Requirements 72
4.4.3 Directional Control Requirements 72
4.5 PID Controller . 73
4.6 Optimal Control-Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) . 73
4.7 Robust Control . 74
4.8 Digital Control . 75
4.9 Stability Augmentation . 76
4.10 Autonomy . 79
4.10.1 Classifcation . 79
4.10.2 Detect (i.e., Sense)-and-Avoid . 81
4.10.3 Automated Recovery . 81
4.10.4 Fault Monitoring . 81
4.10.5 Intelligent Flight Planning 82
4.10.6 Manned-Unmanned Teaming . 82
4.11 Control System Design Process . 83
4.12 Questions 86
4.13 Problems 87
5 Navigation System Design 91ix
5.1 Introduction 91
5.2 Coordinate Systems 92
5.3 Inertial Navigation System 92
5.4 Global Positioning System 95
5.5 Position Fixing Navigation 96
5.5.1 Map Reading 96
5.5.2 Celestial Navigation . 97
5.6 Inertial Navigation Sensors 97
5.6.1 Accelerometer 98
5.6.2 Gyroscope . 99
5.6.3 Airspeed Sensor . 101
5.6.4 Altitude Sensor 102
5.7 Design Considerations . 103
5.8 Questions . 105
6 Guidance System Design . 107
6.1 Introduction . 107
6.2 Elements of Guidance System 109
6.3 Guidance Laws 111
6.4 Line-of-Sight Guidance Law . 112
6.5 Formation Flight . 113
6.6 Proportional Navigation Guidance Law . 116
6.7 Pursuit Guidance Law . 116
6.8 Waypoint Guidance . 117
6.9 Seeker 118
6.10 Questions . 120
7 Microcontroller 123
7.1 Introduction . 123
7.2 Basic Fundamentals . 124
7.3 Modules/Components . 127
7.4 Flight Software 130
7.4.1 Software Development 130
7.4.2 Operating System 131
7.4.3 Management Software 131
7.4.4 Microcontroller Programing 131
7.4.5 Software Integration 133
7.4.6 C Language 133x
7.4.7 Compiler 134
7.4.8 ArduPilot 134
7.4.9 Debugging . 135
7.4.10 Design Procedure 135
7.5 Questions . 135
Part III 139
8 Ground Control Station . 141
8.1 Introduction . 141
8.2 GCS Subsystems . 142
8.3 Human Operator in Ground Station 143
8.4 Types of Ground Stations 145
8.4.1 Handheld Controller . 145
8.4.2 Portable GCS . 146
8.4.3 Mobile Truck . 147
8.4.4 Central Command Station . 149
8.5 Communication System 151
8.6 Design Considerations . 154
8.7 Questions . 155
9 Launch and Recovery Systems 157
9.1 Introduction . 157
9.2 Fundamentals of Launch 158
9.3 Launcher Equipment 159
9.4 Recovery Techniques 161
9.5 Recovery Fundamentals 162
9.5.1 Parachute 162
9.5.2 Impact Recovery . 164
9.6 Air Launch 165
9.7 Hand Launch 165
9.8 Launch and Recovery Systems Design 166
9.9 Questions . 167
9.10 Problems . 168
10 Payloads Selection/Design . 171
10.1 Introduction 171
10.2 Payload Defnition . 172
10.3 Cargo or Freight Payload 173xi
10.4 Reconnaissance/Surveillance Payload . 173
10.4.1 Camera 175
10.4.2 Radar 176
10.5 Scientifc Payloads . 178
10.6 Military Payload (Weapon) 179
10.7 Payload Installation . 180
10.7.1 Payload Location 180
10.7.2 Payload Aerodynamics 181
10.7.3 Payload-Structure Integration . 182
10.7.4 Payload Stabilization 182
10.8 Payload Control and Management . 183
10.9 Payload Selection/Design Considerations . 184
10.10 Questions . 185
10.11 Problems 186
Bibliography . 189
Author Biography
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