Theory of Machines Textbook

Theory of Machines Textbook
اسم المؤلف
R. S. Khurmi, J. K. Gupta
5 أكتوبر 2017

Theory of Machines Textbook
R. S. Khurmi
J. K. Gupta
1. Introduction
1.Definition. 2.Sub-divisions of Theory of Machines.
3. Fundamental Units. 4. Derived Units. 5. Systems
of Units. 6. C.G.S. Units. 7. F.P.S. Units.
8.M.K.S. Units 9.International System of Units (S.l.
Units). 10. Metre. 11. Kilogram. 12. Second.
13. Presentation of Units and their Values.
14. Rules for S.l. Units. 15. Force. 16. Resultant
Force. 1 7. Scalars and Vectors. 18. Representation
of Vector Quantities. 19. Addition of Vectors.
20. Subtraction of Vectors.
Kinematics of Motion
I. Introduction. 2. Plane Motion. 3. Rectilinear
Motion.4.Curve linear Motion.5.Linear Displacement.
6.Linear Velocity. 7.Linear Acceleration.8.Equations
of Linear Motion. 9. Graphical Representation of
Displacement with respect to Time. 10. Graphical
Representation of Velocity with respect to Time.
II.Graphical Representation of Acceleration with
respect to Time. 12. Angular Displacement.
13. Representation of Angular Displacement by a
Vector.14.Angular Velocity.15.AngularAcceleration
16.Equationsof AngularMotion.17.Relationbetween
Linear Motion and Angular Motion. 18. Relation
between Linear and Angular’ Quantities of Motion.
19. Acceleration of a Particle along a Circular Path.
Kinetics of Motion
I. Introduction. 2. Newton’s Laws of Motion.
3. Mass and Weight. 4. Momentum. 5. Force.
6. Absolute and Gravitational Units of Force.
7.Moment of a Force. 8. Couple. 9.Centripetal and
Centrifugal Force. 10. Mass Moment of Inertia.
II.Angular MomentumorMomentofMomentum.
12. Torque. 13. Work. 14. Power. 15. Energy.
16. Principleof Conservation of Energy. 1 7.Impulse
and Impulsive Force. 18. Principle of Conservation
of Momentum. 19. Energy Lost by Friction Clutch
a Geared System. 21. Collision of Two Bodies.
22. Collision of Inelastic Bodies. 23. Collision of
Elastic Bodies. 24. Loss of Kinetic Energy During
Elastic Impact.
Simple Harmonic Motion
1. Introduction. 2. Velocity and Acceleration of a
Particle Moving with Simple Harmonic Motion.
3. Differential Equation of Simple Harmonic Motion.
4. Terms Used in Simple Harmonic Motion.
5. Simple Pendulum. 6. Laws of Simple Pendulum.
7. Closely-coiled Helical Spring. 8. Compound
Pendulum. 9. Centre of Percussion. 10. Bifilar
Suspension. 11. Trifilar Suspension (Torsional
Simple Mechanisms
1. Introduction. 2. Kinematic Link or Element.
3. Types of Links. 4.Structure. 5.Difference Between
a Machine and a Structure. 6. Kinematic Pair.
7. Types of Constrained Motions. 8. Classification
of Kinematic Pairs. 9. Kinematic Chain. 10. Types of
Joints in a Chain. 11. Mechanism. 12. Number of
Degrees of Freedom for Plane Mechanisms.
13. Application of Kutzbach Criterion to Plane
Mechanisms. 14. Grubler’s Criterion for Plane
Mechanisms. 15.Inversion of Mechanism. 16.Types
of KinematicChains. 1 7. Four BarChainorQuadric
Cycle Chain. 18. Inversions of Four Bar Chain.
19. Single Slider Crank Chain. 20. Inversions of
Single Slider Crank Chain. 21. Double Slider Crank
Chain. 22.Inversions of Double Slider Crank Chain.
Velocity in Mechanisms
(Instantaneous Centre Method)
1. Introduction. 2. Space and Body Centrodes.
3. Methods for Determining the Velocity of a Point
on a Link. 4. Velocity of a Point on a Link by
Instantaneous Centre Method. 5. Properties of the
Instantaneous Centre. 6. Number of Instantaneous
Centres in a Mechanism. 7. Types of Instantaneous
Centres. 8. Location of Instantaneous Centres.
9. Aronhold Kennedy (or Three Centres-in-Line)
Theorem. 10. Method of Locating Instantaneous
Centres in a Mechanism.
Velocity in Mechanisms
(Relative Velocity Method)
1.Introduction. 2. Relative Velocity of Two Bodies
Moving in Straight Lines. 3. Motion of a Link.
4. Velocity of a Point on a Link by Relative Velocity
Method. 5. Velocities in a SliderCrankMechanism.
6. Rubbing Velocity at a Pin Joint. 7. Forces Acting
in a Mechanism. 8. Mechanical Advantage.
Acceleration in Mechanisms
1. Introduction. 2. Acceleration Diagram fora Link.
3. Acceleration of a Point on a Link.
4. Acceleration in the Slider Crank Mechanism.
5. Coriolis Component of Acceleration.
Mechanisms with Lower Pairs
I. Introduction 2. Pantograph 3. Straight Line
Mechanism.4.ExactStraight LineMotionMechanisms
Made up of Turning Pairs. 5. Exact Straight Line
MotionConsistingof One SlidingPair (Scott Russel’s
Mechanism). 6. Approximate Straight Line Motion
Mechanisms. 7. Straight Line Motions for Engine
Indicators. 8. Steering Gear Mechanism. 9. Davis
Steering Gear. 10. Ackerman Steering Gear.
II. Universal or Hooke’s Joint. 12. Ratio of the
Shafts Velocities.13.Maximum andMinimum Speeds
of the Driven Shaft. 14. Condition for Equal Speeds
of the Driving and Driven Shafts. 15. Angular
Acceleration of the Driven Shaft. 16. Maximum
Fluctuation of Speed. 17. Double Hooke’s Joint.
10. Friction
1. Introduction. 2. Types of Friction. 3. Friction
Between Unlubricated Surfaces.4.Friction Between
Lubricated Surfaces. 5. LimitingFriction. 6. Laws of
Static Friction. 7.Laws of Kinetic or Dynamic Friction.
8. Laws of Solid Friction. 9. Laws of Fluid Friction.
10. Coefficient of Friction. 11. Limiting Angle of
Friction. 12. Angle of Repose. 13. Minimum Force
Required to Slide a Body on a Rough Horizontal
Plane. 14. Friction of a Body Lying on a Rough
Inclined Plane. 15. Efficiency of Inclined Plane.
16. Screw Friction. 17. Screw Jack. 18. Torque
Required to Lift the Load by a Screw Jack.
19. Torque Required to Lower the Load by a Screw
Jack. 20. Efficiency of a Screw Jack. 21. Maximum
Efficiency of a Screw Jack. 22. Over Hauling and
Self Locking Screws. 23. Efficiency of Self Locking
Screws. 24. Friction of a V-thread. 25. Friction in
Journal Bearing-Friction Circle. 26. Friction of Pivot
and Collar Bearing. 27. Flat Pivot Bearing.
28.Conical Pivot Bearing.29.TrapezoidalorTruncated
Conical Pivot Bearing. 30. Flat Collar Bearing
31.Friction Clutches. 32. Single Disc or PlateClutch.
33. Multiple Disc Clutch. 34. Cone Clutch.
35. Centrifugal Clutches.
11. Belt, Rope and Chain Drives
1. Introduction. 2. Selection of a Belt Drive.
3. Types of Belt Drives. 4. Types of Belts.
5. Material used for Belts. 6. Types of Flat Belt
Drives. 7. Velocity Ratio of Belt Drive. 8. Velocity
Ratio of a Compound Belt Drive. 9. Slip of Belt.
10.Creep of Belt. 11. Length of an Open Belt Drive.
12. LengthofaCrossBelt Drive. 13.PowerTransmitted
by a Belt. 14. Ratio of DrivingTensions for Flat Belt
Drive. 15. Determination of Angle of Contact.
16. Centrifugal Tension. 17. Maximum Tension in
the Belt. 18. Condition for the Transmission of
Maximum Power. 19. Initial Tension in the Belt.
20. V-belt Drive. 21. Advantages and Disadvantages
of V-belt Drive Over Flat Belt Drive. 22. Ratio of
Driving Tensions for V-belt. 23. Rope Drive.
24. Fibre Ropes. 25. Advantages of Fibre Rope
Drives. 26. Sheave for Fibre Ropes. 27. Wire Ropes.
28. Ratio of Driving Tensions for Rope Drive. 29.
Chain Drives. 30. Advantages and Disadvantages of
Chain Drive Over Belt or Rope Drive. 31. Terms
Used in Chain Drive. 32. Relation Between Pitch
and Pitch Circle Diameter. 33. Relation Between
Chain Speed and Angular Velocity of Sprocket.
34. Kinematic of Chain Drive. 35. Classification of
Chains.36.Hoistingand HaulingChains.37.Conveyor
Chains. 38. Power Transmitting Chains. 39. Length of Chains.
12. Toothed Gearing
1. Introduction. 2. Friction Wheels. 3. Advantages
and Disadvantages of Gear Drive. 4. Classification
of Toothed Wheels. 5. Terms Used in Gears.
6.GearMaterials. 7.Condition forConstant Velocity
Ratio of Toothed Wheels-Law of Gearing. 8.Velocity
of Sliding of Teeth. 9.Forms of Teeth. 10. Cycloidal
Teeth. 11. Involute Teeth. 12. Effect of Altering the
Centre Distance on the Velocity Ratio For Involute
Teeth Gears. 13. Comparison Between Involute and
Cycloidal Gears. 14. Systems of Gear Teeth.
15.Standard Proportions of Gear Systems. 16.Length
of Path of Contact. 1 7. Length of Arc of Contact.
18. Contact Ratio (or Number of Pairs of Teeth in
Contact). 19. Interference in Involute Gears.
20. Minimum Number of Teeth on the Pinion in
Order to Avoid Interference. 21.Minimum Number
of Teeth on the Wheel in Order to Avoid Interference.
22. Minimum Number of Teeth on a Pinion for
Involute Rack in Order to Avoid Interference.
23. Helical Gears. 24. Spiral Gears. 25. Centre
Distance for a Pair of Spiral Gears. 26. Efficiency of
Spiral Gears.
13. Gear Trains
1. Introduction. 2. Types of Gear Trains.
3. Simple Gear Train. 4. Compound Gear Train.
Design of Spur Gears. 6. Reverted Gear Train.
7.Epicyclic Gear Train. 8. Velocity Ratio of Epicyclic
GearTrain. 9.Compound EpicyclicGearTrain (Sun
and Planet Wheel). 10. Epicyclic Gear Train With
Bevel Gears. 11. Torques in Epicyclic Gear Trains.
14. Gyroscopic Couple and Precessional Motion
I. Introduction. 2. Precessional Angular Motion.
3.Gyroscopic Couple. 4.Effect ofGyroscopic Couple
on an Aeroplane. 5. Terms Used in a Naval Ship.
6. Effect of Gyroscopic Couple on a Naval Ship
during Steering. 7. Effect of Gyroscopic Couple on
a Naval ShipduringPitching. 8. Effect of Gyroscopic
Couple on a Navel during Rolling. 9. Stability of a
Four Wheel drive Moving in a Curved Path.
10. Stability of a Two Wheel Vehicle Taking a Turn.
II. Effect of Gyroscopic Couple on a Disc Fixed
Rigidly at a Certain Angle to a Rotating Shaft.
15. Inertia Forces in Reciprocating Parts
1. Introduction. 2. Resultant Effect of a System of
Forces Acting on a Rigid Body. 3. D-Alembert’s
Principle. 4. Velocity and Acceleration of the
ReciprocatingParts inEngines.5.Klien’s Construction.
6.Ritterhaus’s Construction.7.Bennett’sConstruction.
8. Approximate Analytical Method for Velocity and
Acceleration of the Piston. 9. Angular Velocity and
Acceleration of the Connecting Rod. 10. Forces on
the Reciprocating Parts of an Engine Neglecting
Weight of the Connecting Rod. 11. Equivalent
Dynamical System. 12.Determination of Equivalent
Dynamical System of Two Masses by Graphical
Method. 13. Correction Couple to be Applied to
Makethe Two Mass Systems Dynamically Equivalent.
the Weight ofConnectingRod. 15.Analytical Method
for Inertia Torque.
16. Turning Moment Diagrams and Flywheel
1. Introduction. 2. Turning Moment Diagram for a
Single Cylinder Double Acting Steam Engine.
3. TurningMoment Diagram fora Four Stroke Cycle
Internal Combustion Engine. 4. Turning Moment
Diagram for a Multicylinder Engine. 5. Fluctuation
of Energy. 6.Determination ofMaximumFluctuation
of Energy. 7. Coefficient of Fluctuation of Energy.
8. Flywheel. 9. Coefficient of Fluctuation of Speed.
10. Energy Stored in a Flywheel. 11. Dimensions of
the Flywheel Rim. 12. Flywheel in Punching Press.
Steam Engine Valves and Reversing Gears
1. Introduction. 2. D-slide Valve. 3. Piston Slide
Valve. 4. Relative Positions of Crank and Eccentric
Centre Lines. 5. Crank Positions for Admission,Cut
off, Release and Compression. 6. Approximate
Analytical Method for Crank Positions at Admission,
Cut-off,Release and Compression. 7.Valve Diagram.
8.Zeuner ValveDiagram. 9.Reuleaux Valve Diagram.
10. Bilgram Valve Diagram. 11. Effect of the Early
Point of Cut-off with a Simple Slide Valve.
12.Meyer’s Expansion Valve.13.Virtual or Equivalent
Eccentric for the Meyer’s Expansion Valve.
14.Minimum Width and Best SettingoftheExpansion
Plate for Meyer’s Expansion Valve. 15. Reversing
Gears.16.Principleof LinkMotions-Virtual Eccentric
for a Valve with an Off-set Line of Stroke.
17.Stephenson LinkMotion.18.Virtual or Equivalent
Eccentric for Stephenson Link Motion. 19. Radial
Valve Gear.
18. Governors
1.Introduction.2. Types of Governors. 3.Centrifugal
Governors. 4. Terms Used in Governors. 5. Watt
Governor. 6. Porter Governor. 7. Proell Governor.
8. Hartnell Governor. 9. Hartung Governor.
12. Sensitiveness of Governors. 13. Stability of
Governors. 14.Isochronous Governor. 15.Hunting.
16. Effort and Power of a Governor. 17. Effort and
Power of a Porter Governor. 18. Controlling Force.
19.ControllingForce Diagram fora Porter Governor.
20.ControllingForce Diagram fora Spring-controlled
Governor. 21. Coefficient of Insensitiveness.
19. Brakes and Dynamometers
1. Introduction. 2. Materials for Brake Lining.
3. Types of Brakes. 4. Single Block or Shoe Brake.
5. Pivoted Block or Shoe Brake. 6. Double Block or
Shoe Brake. 7. Simple Band Brake. 8. Differential
Band Brake. 9. Band and Block Brake. 10. Internal
Expanding Brake. 11. Braking of a Vehicle.
12. Dynamometer. 13. Types of Dynamometers.
14. Classification of Absorption Dynamometers.
15. Prony Brake Dynamometer. 16. Rope Brake
Dynamometers. 17. Classification of Transmission
Dynamometers.18. Epicyclic-train Dynamometers.
19. Belt Transmission Dynamometer-Froude or
ThroneycraftTransmission Dynamometer.20.Torsion
Dynamometer.21. Bevis Gibson Flash Light Torsion
1. Introduction. 2. Classification of Followers.
3. Classification of Cams. 4. Terms used in Radial
cams. 5. Motion of the Follower. 6. Displacement,
Velocityand Acceleration Diagrams whentheFollower
Moves with Uniform Velocity. 7. Displacement,
VelocityandAcceleration Diagrams whentheFollower
Velocityand AccelerationDiagrams whentheFollower
Moves with Uniform Acceleration and Retardation.
9.Displacement,Velocity and Acceleration Diagrams
when the Follower Moves with Cycloidal Motion.
10 Construction of Cam Profiles. 11. Cams with
Roller Follower. 13. Circular Arc Cam with Flatfaced Follower.
21. Balancing of Rotating Masses
1. Introduction. 2. Balancing of Rotating Masses.
3. Balancing of a Single Rotating Mass By a Single
Mass Rotating in the Same Plane. 4. Balancing of a I
Single Rotating Mass By Two Masses Rotating in k- \M
Different Planes. 5. Balancing of Several Masses ~ J
Rotating in the Same Plane. 6. Balancing of Several
Masses Rotating in Different Planes.
22. Balancing of Reciprocating Masses
Forces of ReciprocatingMasses. 3.Partial Balancing
of Unbalanced Primary Force in a Reciprocating
Engine. 4. Partial Balancing of Locomotives.
5. Effect of Partial Balancing of Reciprocating Parts
of Two Cylinder Locomotives.6. Variation of Tractive
Force. 7. Swaying Couple. 8. Flammer Blow.
9. BalancingofCoupled Locomotives. 10.Balancing
of Primary Forces of Multi-cylinder In-line Engines.
In-line Engines. 12. Balancing of Radial Engines
(Direct and Reverse Crank Method). 13. Balancing
of V-engines.
23. Longitudinal and Transverse Vibrations
1.Introduction. 2. Terms Used in Vibratory Motion.
3. Types of Vibratory Motion. 4. Types of Free
Vibrations.5.Natural Frequency of FreeLongitudinal
Vibrations. 6. Natural Frequency of Free Transverse
Vibrations. 7. Effect of Inertia of the Constraint in
Longitudinal and Transverse Vibrations. 8. Natural
Frequency of Free Transverse Vibrations Due to a
Point Load Acting Over a Simply Supported Shaft.
9. Natural Frequency of Free Transverse Vibrations
Due to Uniformly Distributed Load Over a Simply
Supported Shaft. 10. Natural Frequency of Free
Transverse Vibrations of a Shaft Fixed at Both Ends
and Carrying a Uniformly Distributed Load.
11. Natural Frequency of Free Transverse Vibrations
for a Shaft Subjected to a Number of Point Loads.
12.Critical or WhirlingSpeed of aShaft. 13.Frequency
of Free Damped Vibrations (Viscous Damping).
14.DampingFactor or DampingRatio.15.Logarithmic
Decrement. 16. Frequency of Underdamped Forced
Vibrations. 17. Magnification Factor or Dynamic
Magnifier.18.VibrationIsolation andTransmissibility.
24. Torsional Vibrations
1.Introduction.2.Natural Frequency of FreeTorsional
Vibrations. 3.Effect of Inertia of the Constraint on
Torsional Vibrations. 4. Free Torsional Vibrations
ofaSingle RotorSystem. 5.Free Torsional Vibrations
of a Two Rotor System. 6. Free Torsional Vibrations
of a Three Rotor System. 7. Torsionally Equivalent
Shaft. 8. Free Torsional Vibrations of a Geared
25. Computer Aided Analysis and Synthesis of
1. Introduction. 2. Computer Aided Analysis for
Four Bar Mechanism (Freudenstein’s Equation).
3. Programme for Four Bar mechanism. 4. Computer
Aided Analysis for Slider Crank Mechanism.
6. Coupler Curves. 7. Synthesis of Mechanisms.
8.Classifications of Synthesis Problem.9. Precision
Points forFunctionGeneration.10.AngleRelationship
forfunction Generation. 11. Graphical Synthesis of
Four Bar Mechanism. 12. Graphical synthesis of
Slider Crank Mechanism. 13. Computer Aided
(Analytical) synthesis of Four Bar Mechanism.
14. Programme to Co-ordinate the Angular
Displacements of the Input and Output Links.15. Least
square Technique.16.Programme using Least Square
Technique. 17. Computer Aided Synthesis of Four
Bar Mechanism With Coupler Point. 18. Synthesis
of Four Bar Mechanism for Body Guidance.
19.Analytical Synthesis for slider Crank Meehanism.
26. Automatic Control
1.Introduction. 2. Terms Used in Automatic Control
of Systems. 3. Types of Automatic Control System.
4. Block Diagrams. 5. Lag in Response. 6. Transfer
Function. 7. Overall Transfer Function. 8 Transfer
Function for a system with Viscous Damped Output.
9. Transfer Function of a Hartnell Governor.
10.Open-Loop Transfer Function. 11. Closed-Loop
Transfer Function.
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