Project Management for the Creation of Organisational Value

Project Management for the Creation of Organisational Value
اسم المؤلف
Ofer Zwikael, John Smyrk
التاريخ
2 فبراير 2018
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Project Management for the Creation of Organisational Value
Ofer Zwikael, John Smyrk
Contents
1 Projects: An Executive Context 1
1.1 The Role of Projects in Business . 1
1.1.1 Projects: Giving Effect to Strategy 1
1.1.2 Generating Change with Projects . 2
1.2 The Evolution of a Discipline . 3
1.2.1 Some Historical Themes . 4
1.2.2 Project Management as a Profession . 4
1.2.3 Trends in Today’s Project Environment . 5
1.3 Current Issues for Business in Project Planning and
Management . 7
1.4 Summary . 9
2 The Input-Transform-Outcome (ITO) Model of a Project . 11
2.1 Issues with Current Project Management Methodologies 11
2.2 Projects as Processes . 13
2.3 Modelling the Project as a Process . 15
2.3.1 The Input-Process-Output Model 15
2.3.2 Outputs and Outcomes . 17
2.3.3 Target Outcomes . 19
2.4 The Input-Transform-Outcome Model . 22
2.4.1 Utilising Outputs to Generate Target Outcomes . 22
2.4.2 The Chronology of the ITO Model 25
2.4.3 Projects and Business Operations . 26
2.4.4 Key Players: Roles, Responsibilities and
Accountabilities . 28
2.5 Illustrating the ITO Methodology: The Project BuyRite
Case Study 30
2.5.1 The Company . 30
2.5.2 Project BuyRite . 32
2.5.3 The Emerging Shape of Project BuyRite 33
2.6 Summary . 35
ix3 Achieving Success in Projects 37
3.1 A Framework for Gauging Performance and Judging Success . 37
3.1.1 Perspectives of Success 37
3.1.2 The Analysis of Project Performance . 38
3.1.3 Regression Testing . 41
3.2 Project Management Success . 42
3.2.1 The Conventional Treatment 42
3.2.2 A New Treatment 46
3.2.3 Judging Project Management Success 48
3.2.4 Project Management Success in Practice 50
3.3 The Worth of a Project . 53
3.3.1 Evaluating a Project’s Worth 53
3.3.2 Measuring a Project’s Worth: The Limitations
of Financial Units 54
3.3.3 A Project’s Benefits 57
3.3.4 A Project’s Disbenefits 58
3.3.5 A Project’s Cost . 58
3.3.6 Calculating a Project’s Worth 59
3.3.7 Benefit-Cost Analysis and ITO-Based
Project Assessment . 60
3.4 Project Ownership Success . 62
3.4.1 Judging Project Ownership Success 62
3.4.2 The Regression Test of Project Ownership Success . 63
3.5 Project Investment Success . 65
3.5.1 The Regression Test of Project Investment Success . 65
3.5.2 The Rationale for the Regression Test of
Project Investment Success . 67
3.5.3 Qualifying Judgements Based on the Regression Test . 69
3.6 Comparing the Three Tests of Success . 69
3.6.1 Comparing Approaches to Judging Success 71
3.6.2 Comparing the Many Faces of Success . 74
3.7 Critical Success Processes (CSP) . 76
3.7.1 The Need for an Alternative Critical Approach 76
3.7.2 The Critical Success Processes Model 80
3.8 Summary . 83
4 The Project Environment . 85
4.1 Project Phases 85
4.1.1 Project Initiation . 86
4.1.2 Project Planning . 87
4.1.3 Project Execution 88
4.1.4 Outcome Realisation 88
4.1.5 Accountabilities During a Project’s Life 89
x Contents4.2 The Anatomy of a Project . 89
4.2.1 The Elements of a Project 90
4.2.2 The Types of Work in a Project 93
4.2.3 A Project’s Baseline Documents 94
4.3 Project Governance 95
4.3.1 Overview of Project Governance . 95
4.3.2 Principles of Project Governance . 96
4.3.3 The Structure of the Project Governance Model . 99
4.3.4 Classes of Entity in the Project Governance Model . 101
4.3.5 Managing the Project Governance Model 108
4.4 The Project Management Office (PMO) 110
4.5 Stakeholder Management 110
4.5.1 The Concept of Project Stakeholding . 112
4.5.2 The Community of Stakeholders 114
4.5.3 The Stakeholder Management Process 117
4.5.4 Stakeholder Identification . 118
4.5.5 Stakeholder Analysis 121
4.5.6 The Stakeholder Register . 123
4.5.7 Stakeholder Engagement Planning . 124
4.5.8 Stakeholder Engagement Implementation 124
4.5.9 Stakeholder Engagement Monitoring . 125
4.6 The Programme Environment . 125
4.6.1 Related Projects . 128
4.6.2 Coordinated Projects 129
4.6.3 Staged Projects 131
4.6.4 Partitioning Projects 132
4.7 The Project Portfolio . 132
4.8 Summary . 133
5 Starting a New Project . 135
5.1 Initiating a Project . 135
5.1.1 The Project Champion . 135
5.1.2 Leading Project Initiation . 136
5.1.3 Conceptualisation 138
5.1.4 The Role of the Business Case . 139
5.1.5 Developing the Business Case . 140
5.1.6 Expectations, Constraints and Assumptions 143
5.2 Scoping the Project 145
5.2.1 Setting Project Scope 145
5.2.2 The Statement of Scope 146
5.2.3 Identifying and Defining Target Outcomes . 148
5.2.4 Identifying Committed Outputs . 152
5.2.5 Validating Project Scope . 152
5.2.6 Defining Outputs 161
5.3 The Business Case . 162
5.3.1 The Structure of a Business Case . 166
5.3.2 A Business Case Example 167
5.3.3 Judging a Business Case . 175
5.3.4 Accepting the Business Case 177
5.4 Appraising Project Risk . 177
5.4.1 The Level of Project Risk 178
5.4.2 The Effect of Risk on Project Appraisal 179
5.5 Summary . 180
6 Planning a Project: The Roles of the Key Players . 181
6.1 An Outline of Project Planning 181
6.1.1 The Need for Planning 181
6.1.2 The Structure of the Planning Phase . 183
6.1.3 The Outputs from Planning . 184
6.1.4 An Iterative Approach to Planning 188
6.2 The Project Manager . 189
6.2.1 The Responsibilities of the Project Manager 189
6.2.2 Critical Success Processes During
Project Planning . 190
6.2.3 The Work Breakdown Structure 195
6.2.4 The Gantt Chart . 196
6.2.5 The Project’s Estimated Cost 201
6.2.6 Risk Mitigation Planning . 207
6.3 The Project Team . 214
6.4 The Project Owner . 216
6.4.1 Identifying Critical Outputs for
Close Attention 216
6.4.2 Approving the Project Plan . 219
6.5 The Steering Committee . 220
6.6 Reference Groups and Advisers 220
6.7 Project Counsellors 220
6.7.1 Evaluating the Quality of the Project Plan . 221
6.7.2 The Quality of the Project Plan
in Practice . 222
6.8 Summary . 223
7 Executing a Project: The Roles of the Key Players 225
7.1 An Outline of Project Execution Management . 225
7.1.1 Execution Management Processes . 226
7.1.2 Accommodating Projects within an
Organisational Structure 228
7.1.3 Top Management Support 232
xii Contents7.2 The Project Manager . 233
7.2.1 The Project Manager as a Project Execution
Manager 234
7.2.2 Communications Management . 234
7.2.3 Risk Control 236
7.2.4 Issue Management 237
7.2.5 Schedule Control 239
7.2.6 The Project Manager’s Role as a Team Leader 240
7.2.7 Output Closeout . 244
7.3 The Project Team . 245
7.3.1 Formalising Team Roles . 246
7.3.2 Regular Team Meetings 246
7.4 The Project Owner . 247
7.4.1 Managing Scope Change . 247
7.4.2 Scope Change and Risk 249
7.4.3 Managing Schedule Change . 250
7.5 The Steering Committee . 251
7.5.1 A Stylised Reporting Package . 251
7.5.2 A Stylised Agenda . 255
7.5.3 Celebrating Success . 256
7.6 Other Key Players . 256
7.7 Summary . 257
8 Realising Outcomes from a Project: The Roles of the
Key Players . 259
8.1 An Outline of Outcome Realisation . 259
8.1.1 Natural and Synthetic Outcome Realisation 260
8.1.2 Facilitation . 260
8.1.3 Handover 261
8.1.4 Outcome Closeout 261
8.1.5 Evaluation of Project Ownership 263
8.2 The Project Manager . 264
8.2.1 Project Customer Support 264
8.2.2 Utilisation Monitoring . 264
8.3 The Project Owner . 265
8.3.1 Ensuring Effective Utilisation of Outputs 265
8.3.2 Outcome Evaluation 265
8.3.3 Project Evaluation 267
8.4 The Steering Committee . 269
8.5 Other Key Players . 269
8.6 Summary . 270
Contents xiiiAppendix A: An Integrated Glossary of Project Management
Terms & Definitions . 271
Appendix B: The Input-Transform-Outcome (ITO) Study . 325
Appendix C: The Critical Success Processes Study . 329
References 351
Index 35
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