مشروع تخرج بعنوان  Objectives of Heat Treatments

مشروع تخرج بعنوان  Objectives of Heat Treatments
اسم المؤلف
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التاريخ
14 فبراير 2018
المشاهدات
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مشروع تخرج بعنوان 
Objectives of Heat Treatments 
Graduation Project
TABLE OF CONTENT
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. OBJECTIVES OF HEAT TREATMENT 2
2.1. HEAT TREATMENT PROCESSES 2
2.1.1. Full Annealing 2
2.1.2. Spheroidizing 2
2.1.3. Stress Relief Annealing: 3
2.2. NORMALIZING 4
2.3. TEMPERING PROCESSES: 5
2.3.1. Conventional Temper Process 5
2.3.2. Austempering: 5
2.3.3. Martempering: 5
2.4. QUENCH MEDIA 7
2.4.1Water: 7
2.4.2. Salt Water: 7
2.4.3. Oil: 7
2.4.4. Polymer quench: 7
2.4.5. Cryogenic Quench: 7
3. HARDNESS TESTING 8
3.1. HARDNESS MEASUREMENT 8
3.2. HARDNESS MEASUREMENT METHODS 9
3.2.1. ROCKWELL HARDNESS 9
3.2.2. BRINELL HARDNESS 10
3.2.3. VICKERS HARDNESS (Micro and Macro hardness) and Knoop 10
3.2.3.1. Vickers Test 11
3.2.3.2. Knoop Test 11
3.3. HOW TO READ A HARDNESS NUMBER 12
4. DESIGNATION OF STEEL 13
4.1. GOST (RUSSIAN STANDARD) 13
4.2. AISI (AMERICAN IRON & STEEL INSTITUTE) 15
4.3. DIN 20
5. SURFACE HARDENING OF STEEL 22
5.1. HIGH FREQUENCY INDUCTION HARDENING 22
5.2. HARDENING WITH ELECTRIC CONTACT RESISTANCE HEATING 27
5.3. HARDENING WITH ELECTROLYTIC HEATING 28
5.4. FLAME HARDENING 29
6. CASE HARDENING OF STEEL 32
6.1. CYANIDING & CARBONITRIDING OF STEEL 32
6.1.2. Liquid cyaniding 32
6.1.3. Carbonitriding: 35
6.1.4. High temperature Carbonitriding 36
6.2. CARBURIZING 38
6.2.1. pack carburizing: 38
6.2.2. Gas carburized: 39
6.2.3. Liquid carburizing: 40
6.3. NITRIDING 41
7. LITERATURE REVIEW 46
8. SYSTEM DESIGN 49
8.1. SYSTEM ASSEMBLY 49
8.2. THE MAIN COMPONENTS: 50
8.3. STEEL TABLE: 52
8.4. THE ELECTRODE AND ELECTRODE HOLDER 53
8.5. WORKPIECE HOLDING MECHANISM: 54
8.5.1 Workpiece holder 54
8.5.2 Male guide 56
8.6. WORKPIECE DRIVING SCREW 57
8.6.1. WORKPIECE DRIVING NUT 57
8.7. BRIDGE WITH FEMALE SLOT (GUIDE WAY) 58
8.8. ELECTRODE DRIVING MECHANISM 59
8.9. WORKPIECE 60
8.10. BATH (ELECTROLYTE CONTAINER) 60
9. CHARACTERISTICS OF POWER SUPPLY 61
9.1. RELATION BETWEEN GAP AND CURRENT AT CONSTANT VOLTAGE 62
9.1. RELATION BETWEEN CURRENT AND VOLTAGE AT CONSTANT GAP 73
10. EXPERIMENT 80
10.1. PROCESS VARIABLES 80
10.2. PROCESS SPECIFICATIONS 80
11. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS 81
11.1. PULSE CURRENT CONDITION 81
11.2. DIRECT CURRENT CONDITION 81
10. RECOMMENDATIONS 82
Table of Figure
Figure (1) microscopic structure before and after Spheroidizing 3
Figure (2) Annealing and Spheroidizing Temperatures 3
Figure (3) Normalizing temperatures for hypoeutectoid and hypereutectoid steels. 4
Figure (4) Austempering process. 5
Figure (5) Martempering process. 6
Figure (6) nano-indentation machines 8
Figure (7) Rockwell test 9
Figure (8) Brinell hardness method 10
Figure (9) Vickers Test 11
Figure (10) Knoop Test 11
Figure (11) principle of high frequency induction heating 22
Figure (12) hardening with electric contact heating 27
Figure (13) electrolytic heating (schematic diagram) 28
Figure (14) Relation between depth of hardening and holding time 39
Figure (15) whole system 49
Figure (16) main components 50
Figure (17) Table 52
Figure (18) Guiding nut 53
Figure (19) the electrode plate 53
Figure (20) Electrode holding bar 53
Figure (21) Fastener 54
Figure (22) Alloy steel rod 54
Figure (23) Bakelite box 55
Figure (24) Steel fasteners 55
Figure (25) upper part 56
Figure (26) lower part 56
Figure (27) Screw 57
Figure (28) Driving Nut 57
Figure (29) Legs 58
Figure (30) bridge 58
Figure (31) Bridge base plate 58
Figure (32) Fasteners 58
Figure (33) Ball Bearing 59
Figure (34) supports 59
Figure (35) Handle 59
Figure (36) Work piece 60
Figure (37) Bath 60
Figure (38) Relation between gap and current at constant voltage at 50 V 62
Figure (39) Relation between gap and current at constant voltage at 100 V 63
Figure (40) Relation between gap and current at constant voltage at 150 V 64
Figure (41) Relation between gap and current at constant voltage at 200 V 65
Figure (42) Relation between gap and current at constant voltage at 240 V 66
Figure (43) Relation between gap and current at constant voltage at 260 V 67
Figure (44) Relation between gap and current at constant voltage at 280 V 68
Figure (45) Relation between gap and DC current at different voltage 71
Figure (46) Relation between gap and pulsed current at different voltage 72
Figure (47) Relation between current and voltage at constant gap at 50 mm 73
Figure (48) Relation between current and voltage at constant gap at 100 mm 74
Figure (49) Relation between current and voltage at constant gap 75
Figure (50) Relation between current and voltage at constant gap 77
Figure (51) Relation between current and voltage at different gaps 79
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