مترولوجيا اللحام – Metallurgy of Welding

مترولوجيا اللحام – Metallurgy of Welding
اسم المؤلف
J. F. Lancaster
التاريخ
11 أغسطس 2018
المشاهدات
التقييم
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مترولوجيا اللحام – Metallurgy of Welding
Sixth Edition
J. F. Lancaster
Contents
Preface to the Sixth Edition ix
1. Introductory . 1
1.1 Structural Joints . 1
1.2 The Cohesion of Crystalline Solids 1
1.3 The Plastic Behaviour of Crystalline Solids . 6
1.4 Solid-liquid Interactions . 15
1.5 Fracture . 20
References 38
2. Solid-phase Welding . 40
2.1 Physical Aspects and Metallurgy . 40
2.2 Solid-phase Welding Processes 42
References 53
Further Reading . 53
3. The Use of Adhesives for Making Structural
Joints . 54
3.1 History . 54
3.2 Bonding between Adhesive and Substrate 55
3.3 Polymers . 61
3.4 The Properties of Adhesive Polymers . 66
3.5 Bonding Procedures 72
3.6 Joint Design and Applications . 80
References 83
Further Reading . 84vi Contents
4. Soldering and Brazing 85
4.1 Physical Aspects . 85
4.2 Soldering . 87
4.3 Brazing 94
References 104
Further Reading . 104
5. The Joining of Ceramics: Microjoining . 105
5.1 Scope 105
5.2 The Properties of Ceramics . 105
5.3 Glass-metal Seals . 107
5.4 Glass-ceramics 111
5.5 Brazing 114
5.6 Other Techniques 116
5.7 Microjoining . 120
References 126
Further Reading . 127
6. Fusion Welding Processes and Their Thermal
Effects 128
6.1 The Development of Fusion Welding 128
6.2 The Nature of Fusion Welding . 130
6.3 Types of Fusion-welded Joint 145
6.4 Heat Flow in Fusion Welding . 147
6.5 Weld Defects . 166
References 168
Further Reading . 168
7. Metallurgical Effects of the Weld Thermal Cycle 169
7.1 Gas-metal Equilibria 169
7.2 Gas-metal Reactions in Arc Welding . 176
7.3 The Mechanism of Gas Absorption in Welding . 185Contents vii
7.4 Porosity . 187
7.5 Diffusion 190
7.6 Dilution and Uniformity of the Weld Deposit 192
7.7 Weld Pool Solidification . 193
7.8 Weld Cracking . 197
7.9 Metallurgical Effects in the Parent Metal and Solidified
Weld Metal 201
References 209
Further Reading . 210
8. Carbon and Ferritic Alloy Steels 211
8.1 Scope 211
8.2 Metallurgy of the Liquid Weld Metal 211
8.3 Transformation and Microstructure of Steel 225
8.4 The Mechanical Properties of the Welded Joint 239
8.5 Stress Intensification, Embrittlement and Cracking
of Fusion Welds below the Solidus 248
8.6 Steelmaking . 279
8.7 The Welding of Iron and Steel Products 287
References 307
Further Reading . 308
9. Austenitic and High-alloy Steels 310
9.1 Scope 310
9.2 The Weld Pool . 310
9.3 Alloy Constitution . 316
9.4 Mechanical Properties . 324
9.5 Transformation, Embrittlement and Cracking 327
9.6 The Use of Austenitic Cr-Ni Alloys for Repair
Welding, Cladding and Transition Joints . 337
9.7 Corrosion-resistant Steels: Alloys and Welding
Procedures 345viii Contents
9.8 Heat-resisting Steels: Alloys and Welding
Procedures 348
9.9 Hardenable High-alloy Steels 349
References 350
Further Reading . 351
10. Non-ferrous Metals . 353
10.1 Aluminium and Its Alloys . 353
10.2 Magnesium and Its Alloys . 371
10.3 Copper and Its Alloys 373
10.4 Nickel and Its Alloys 381
10.5 The Reactive and Refractory Metals . 388
10.6 The Low-melting Metals: Lead and Zinc 396
10.7 The Precious Metals: Silver, Gold and Platinum . 397
References 397
Further Reading . 398
11. The Behaviour of Welds in Service . 399
11.1 General 399
11.2 The Initiation and Propagation of Fast Fractures 399
11.3 Slow Crack Propagation 409
11.4 Corrosion of Welds 420
11.5 Assessing the Reliability of Welded Structures . 430
References 432
Further Reading . 432
Appendices
Appendix 1: Symbols . 434
Appendix 2: Conversion Factors 437
Index
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