Introduction to Compressible Fluid Flow

Introduction to Compressible Fluid Flow
اسم المؤلف
Patrick H. Oosthuizen, William E. Carscallen
التاريخ
7 أكتوبر 2017
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Introduction to Compressible Fluid Flow
Patrick H. Oosthuizen
William E. Carscallen
Contents
Nomenclature .xi
Preface .xv
Acknowledgments xix
Authors . xxi
1. Introduction .1
Compressibility 1
Fundamental Assumptions 5
Units .8
SI Units 8
English System 8
Conservation Laws 10
Concluding Remarks . 18
2. Equations for Steady One-Dimensional Compressible Fluid Flow . 21
Introduction 21
Control Volume 23
Continuity Equation 24
Momentum Equation (Euler’s Equation) 26
Steady Flow Energy Equation 28
Equation of State 29
Entropy Considerations 32
Use of the One-Dimensional Flow Equations .35
Concluding Remarks .36
3. Some Fundamental Aspects of Compressible Flow 39
Introduction 39
Isentropic Flow in a Streamtube 39
Speed of Sound .43
Mach Waves 51
Concluding Remarks .55
4. One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow .59
Introduction 59
Governing Equations 59
Stagnation Conditions .68
Critical Conditions . 76
Maximum Discharge Velocity .78
Isentropic Relations in Tabular and Graphical Form and from Software .79
Concluding Remarks . 81
5. Normal Shock Waves .87
Shock Waves .87
Stationary Normal Shock Waves . 91viii Contents
2008 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Normal Shock Wave Relations in Terms of Mach Number . 100
Limiting Cases of Normal Shock Wave Relations 108
Normal Shock Wave Tables and Software . 110
The Pitot Tube in Supersonic Flow 112
Moving Normal Shock Waves . 117
Concluding Remarks . 129
6. Oblique Shock Waves 135
Introduction 135
Oblique Shock Wave Relations 135
Re?ection of Oblique Shock Waves . 146
Interaction of Oblique Shock Waves . 156
Conical Shock Waves . 162
Concluding Remarks . 165
7. Expansion Waves: Prandtl–Meyer Flow 169
Introduction 169
Prandtl–Meyer Flow 169
Re?ection and Interaction of Expansion Waves 180
Boundary Layer Effects on Expansion Waves . 184
Flow over Bodies Involving Shock and Expansion Waves 185
Unsteady Expansion Waves . 191
Concluding Remarks .204
8. Variable Area Flow .209
Introduction 209
Effects of Area Changes on Flow 209
Equations for Variable Area Flow . 215
Operating Characteristics of Nozzles . 224
Convergent Nozzle 225
Convergent–Divergent Nozzle .229
Convergent–Divergent Supersonic Diffusers 241
Transonic Flow over a Body . 251
Concluding Remarks .255
9. Adiabatic Flow in a Duct with Friction 263
Introduction 263
Flow in a Constant Area Duct 263
Friction Factor Variations 278
The Fanno Line 284
Frictional Flow in a Duct Preceded by an Isentropic Nozzle 287
The Effects of Friction on Variable Area Flow . 295
Concluding Remarks . 298
10. Flow with Heat Transfer 305
Introduction 305
Aerodynamic Heating .305
The Adiabatic Surface Temperature 306Contents ix
2008 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Heat Transfer in High-Speed Flow . 310
Internal Flows with Heat Addition or Removal 318
One-Dimensional Flow in a Constant Area Duct Neglecting Viscosity . 319
Entropy–Temperature Relations 336
Variable Area Flow with Heat Addition .338
One-Dimensional Constant Area Flow with Both Heat Exchange and Friction 343
Isothermal Flow with Friction in a Constant Area Duct .348
Combustion Waves 353
Condensation Shocks 362
Concluding Remarks .364
External Flows .364
Internal Flows 365
Combustion and Condensation Waves 365
11. Hypersonic Flow . 373
Introduction 373
Characteristics of Hypersonic Flow 373
Newtonian Theory 380
Modifed Newtonian Theory .384
Forces on a Body 389
Concluding Remarks . 396
12. High-Temperature Flows 399
Introduction 399
Effect of Temperature on Specifc Heats . 401
Perfect Gas Law 410
Dissociation and Ionization . 413
Nonequilibrium Effects 424
Concluding Remarks .425
13. Low-Density Flows 427
Introduction 427
Knudsen Number 427
Low-Density Flow Regimes .430
Slip Flow 434
Free Molecular Flow 436
Concluding Remarks .440
14. An Introduction to Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow .441
Introduction 441
Governing Equations 441
Continuity Equation .441
Momentum Equation 443
Energy Equation 445
Vorticity Considerations .448
The Velocity Potential 451
Linearized Solutions 454
Linearized Subsonic Flow 459x Contents
2008 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Linearized Supersonic Flow .464
Numerical Solutions 473
Concluding Remarks . 473
Appendix A: COMPROP2 Code for Compressible Flow Properties 475
Appendix B: Numerical Examples .483
Appendix C: Mini-Project–Type Assignments 497
Appendix D: Optical Methods in Compressible Flows .499
Appendix E: Isentropic Flow Table for ? = 1.4 .507
Appendix F: Normal Shock Table for ? = 1.4 513
Appendix G: Table for One-Dimensional Adiabatic Flow with Friction for ? = 1.4 517
Appendix H: Table for One-Dimensional Flow with Heat Exchange for ? = 1.4 . 523
Appendix I: Table for One-Dimensional Isothermal Flow with Friction for ? = 1.4 . 529
Appendix J: Oblique Shock Wave Charts for ? = 1.4 535
Appendix K: Approximate Properties of the Standard Atmosphere 541
Appendix L: Properties of Dry Air at Atmospheric Pressure .543
Appendix M: Constants, Conversion Factors, and Units .545
Bibliography
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