Handbook of Rigging

Handbook of Rigging
اسم المؤلف
Joseph A. MacDonald, W. E. Rossnagel, Lindley R. Higgins
التاريخ
13 فبراير 2019
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Handbook of Rigging – Fifth Edition
Lifting, Hoisting, and Scaffolding
for Construction and Industrial
Operations
Joseph A. MacDonald
W. E. Rossnagel
Lindley R. Higgins
Contents
Preface . xxv
Introduction xxvii
Section 1 Codes, Standards, and Regulations
1 Codes and Standards . 3
1.1 Building Codes . 3
Codes Guide . 4
1.2 U.S. Consensus Standards and
Specifi cations . 4
ANSI—American National Standards
Institute 4
ANSI/ASCE—American National
Standards Institute/American Society
of Civil Engineers . 5
ASTM—ASTM International . 5
CSI—Construction Specifications
Institute 5
NIST—National Institute of Standards
and Technology . 5
1.3 Industry Consensus Standards . 6
American Institute of Steel Construction
(AISC) . 6
American Welding Society (AWS) . 7
American Society of Civil Engineers
(ASCE) . 7
1.4 Recommended Practices and Guidelines . 7
1.5 Regulations and Standards 8
OSHA Regulations 8
U.S. Consensus Standards and
Guidelines 8
2 Government Regulations 9
2.1 Federal Regulations . 9
OSHA . 9
Department of Energy (DOE) 10
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 11
Stormwater Runoff . 11
Solid and Hazardous Waste . 11
Spill Reporting 12
vvi C o n t e n t s
2.2 State Requirements and Local
Ordinances . 12
2.3 Licenses, Permits, and Certifi cations 14
Licenses . 14
Building Permits . 14
Zoning Requirements . 15
2.4 Compliance Resources 15
Section 2 Engineering Principles
3 Basic Machines . 19
3.1 Mechanical Laws . 19
Inclined Plane 20
Leverage 22
Pulley System 23
Wheel and Axle 23
3.2 Determining Stresses 25
Swinging Scaffold 25
Derrick 25
Sling 27
3.3 Effect of Motion 29
3.4 Determining Weight of Loads 31
Structural Shape Weights 32
3.5 Calculating Approximate Weights 33
3.6 Determining Centers of Gravity 36
Plane Figures 36
Irregular Objects . 36
3.7 Applying Factors of Safety . 39
4 Wood Technology 41
4.1 Physical Properties . 41
Shrinkage . 42
Density and Specifi c Gravity . 44
Weathering 44
4.2 Common Wood Defects . 45
Growth-related . 45
Seasoning-related . 45
Wood Deterioration . 45
Knots . 46
Pitch Pockets . 46
Checks 48
Shakes 48
Warping . 48
Reaction Wood . 50C o n t e n t s vii
4.3 External Causes of Damage 50
Temperature . 51
Decay or Rot . 51
Termites . 53
4.4 Mechanical Properties . 54
Wood Strength and Stiffness . 55
Shakes 56
Pitch Pockets . 57
Grain Angle . 57
Brashness . 59
Creep . 60
Compression Failures . 60
Reaction Wood . 60
5 Wood Structural Members . 63
5.1 Structural Properties 65
5.2 Structural Members . 67
Beams . 67
Joists 72
Planks 72
Columns 74
5.3 Rules-of-Thumb 76
References . 77
Industry Standards Resources
and Guidelines 77
6 Metal Structural Members . 79
6.1 Structural Metal Shape Properties 80
6.2 Selecting Structural Metal Beams . 81
6.3 Design Calculations 83
Shear . 85
Equivalent Distributed Loads 85
Bearing Plate . 85
6.4 Steel Structural Sections . 87
6.5 Aluminum Structural Sections . 90
Web 92
References . 92
Regulations and Standards 92
OSHA Regulations 92
U.S. Consensus Standards . 93
Industry Consensus Standards
and Guidelines 93
7 Useful Formulas, Tables, and Conversion
Factors . 95
Areas and Volumes 96viii C o n t e n t s
Trigonometric Functions . 100
Conversions Factors . 106
Material Weights 110
Diameters of Standard Bolts and Pipes . 113
Rope Sizes . 117
Block and Tackles . 118
Section 3 Worksite Preparation
8 Protection of Worksite, Adjacent Areas,
and Utilities 121
8.1 Work Area Safety . 121
8.2 Signage and Protective Barriers . 122
Barricades and Fences . 123
8.3 Site Lighting and Perimeter Fencing 124
8.4 Worksite Housekeeping . 127
Waste Material Removal . 127
Water/Wastewater
Treatment/Disposal . 129
Best Water Management Practices 130
8.5 Jobsite Safety Checklist 130
8.6 Site Features . 133
Temporary Access 134
Ground-level and Underground
Obstructions 135
Space Allocation 135
8.7 Boundary Considerations 135
Adjacent Buildings . 136
Trees 136
Railway Lines 136
Drainage and Watercourses 136
Trespass . 137
8.8 Public Safety . 137
Health 137
Noise . 137
Pedestrian Protection . 138
8.9 Property Protection . 139
9 Support Systems . 141
9.1 Sanitary Facilities . 141
9.2 Medical Services and First Aid . 141
9.3 Equipment and Materials Storage . 142
Equipment 142
Materials 144
9.4 Storage Area Checklist 146C o n t e n t s ix
9.5 Communications Systems . 146
Data Exchange . 147
9.6 Emergency Response Plan . 150
Response Procedure 150
9.7 Security Systems . 151
Site Lighting . 152
Fencing . 153
Alarms 154
9.8 Security Checklist 155
Regulations and Standards 157
OSHA Regulations 157
U.S. Consensus Standards . 158
Industry Consensus Standards
and Guidelines 158
Section 4 Rigging Systems
10 Fiber Rope (Cordage) . 161
10.1 Natural Fiber Ropes 161
Construction . 165
10.2 Synthetic Fiber Ropes . 168
10.3 Characteristics of Fiber Rope . 172
Tensile Pull or Load . 172
Bending Flexing 172
Surface Friction 175
10.4 Breaking Strengths and Safe Working
Loads of Fiber Rope 175
Elongation, Elasticity, and Creep 177
Impact Loading 177
Flexibility . 178
10.5 Calculating Breaking Strength
of Fiber Rope . 178
10.6 Calculating Safe Working Load
of Fiber Rope . 179
10.7 Safety Factor of Fiber Rope 180
10.8 Handling and Care of Fiber Rope . 181
Uncoiling Fiber Rope . 183
Making Up Rope . 184
10.9 Inspection of Fiber Rope . 184
Visible Defects . 185
Checking Rope Strength . 186
10.10 Comparative Characteristics
of Cordage Fibers 187
Regulations and Standards 200
OSHA Regulations 200x C o n t e n t s
U.S. Consensus Standards . 200
Industry Consensus Standards
and Guidelines 200
11 Knots, Bends, Hitches, and Splices . 201
11.1 Knots, Bends, and Hitches . 202
Knots . 202
Hitches 204
Loops . 207
Shortenings 207
11.2 Splicing Natural Fiber Rope 209
Short Splice 209
Long Splice 210
Back Splice (End Splice) . 211
Eye Splice . 213
Whipping Natural Fiber Rope 214
11.3 Splicing Synthetic Fiber Rope 215
References . 216
Regulations and Standards 216
OSHA Regulations 216
U.S. Consensus Standards . 216
Industry Consensus Standards
and Guidelines 216
12 Slings and Hitches 217
12.1 Natural Fiber Rope Slings . 217
Manila Rope Slings . 218
12.2 Synthetic Fiber Rope Web Slings 218
12.3 Wire Rope Slings . 220
12.4 Sling Construction 222
Wire Rope Sling Elements . 222
12.5 Alloy Steel Chain Slings . 227
12.6 Selecting Proper Slings 227
12.7 Safe Working Loads for Slings 228
Sling Angle 230
12.8 Safe Lifting Practices with Slings . 231
Center of Gravity . 233
12.9 Care and Maintenance of Slings 236
12.10 Inspection of Slings . 238
Possible Defects 238
12.11 Safe Working Load Formulas . 239
Regulations and Standards 240
OSHA Regulations 240
U.S. Consensus Standards . 240
Industry Consensus Standards
and Guidelines 240C o n t e n t s xi
13 Fiber Rope Slings and Synthetic Fiber
Web Slings . 241
13.1 Fiber Rope Slings . 241
Sling Selection . 241
13.2 Synthetic Fiber Web Slings . 243
Nylon . 243
Dacron 244
Polyester 244
Polypropylene . 244
Types of Synthetic Fiber
Web Slings 248
13.3 Splicing Fiber Rope Slings . 248
13.4 Safe Lifting Practices with Slings . 250
Maximum Safe Working
Loads 250
13.5 Care and Maintenance of Fiber Rope
and Synthetic Fiber Web Slings 251
Synthetic Fiber Web Slings . 251
Flat Webbing and Round Synthetic
Fiber Slings . 252
13.6 Inspection of Fiber Rope and Synthetic
Fiber Web Slings . 252
Self-inspection Checklist . 253
14 Wire Strand Rope 257
14.1 Wire Strand Rope Markings 257
14.2 Types and Sizes 258
Sizes 258
14.3 Construction of Wire Strand Rope 259
Strands and Wires 260
Wires . 260
Rope Core . 262
Rope Lay 263
Lay Length 265
14.4 Selection Criteria for Wire Rope 266
Fatigue 267
Abrasion 267
Corrosion . 268
Flexibility . 268
14.5 Rated Capacity of Wire Rope . 269
Breaking Strength 269
Attachments . 269
14.6 Safe Working Loads 270
14.7 Safe Lifting Practices 272
Safety Guidelines . 273
Safety Factors 275xii C o n t e n t s
14.8 Care and Maintenance of Wire
Strand Rope 276
Coiling and Uncoiling . 277
Kinks and Reverse Bends 278
Wire Rope Failure 278
Proper Care of Wire Rope 279
Maintenance of Wire Rope . 280
Storage 285
Discarding Wire Rope Slings . 285
14.9 Inspection of Wire Strand Rope . 285
Inspection Procedures . 285
Condition of Wires 289
Removing Wire Rope from
Service . 290
Inspection Process 291
14.10 Common Wire Rope Degradation . 292
Wire Rope Glossary . 294
Regulations and Standards 297
OSHA Regulations 297
U.S. Consensus Standards . 297
Industry Consensus Standards
and Guidelines 297
15 Wire Rope, Metal Mesh, and Chain Slings 299
15.1 Wire Rope Slings . 299
Wire Rope Sling Types 299
15.2 Selection of Wire Rope Slings 301
Abuse . 301
15.3 Rated Capacity of Wire Rope Slings . 303
15.4 Wire Rope Sling Splices . 304
15.5 Safe Lifting Practices with Wire
Rope Slings . 306
15.6 Care and Maintenance of Wire
Rope Slings . 307
15.7 Inspection of Wire Rope Slings . 308
15.8 Wire Mesh Slings . 309
Wire Mesh Sling Properties 310
15.9 Rated Capacities of Wire Mesh Slings . 311
15.10 Care and Maintenance of Wire
Mesh Slings . 312
15.11 Alloy Steel Chain Slings . 312
Alloy Steel Chain Characteristics . 312
Rated Capacities of Chain Slings 313
15.12 Selecting Chain Slings . 316
15.13 Safe Chain Sling Work Practices 318C o n t e n t s xiii
15.14 Care and Maintenance of Chain Slings 319
15.15 Inspection of Chain Slings . 321
Regulations and Standards 323
OSHA Regulations 323
U.S. Consensus Standards . 324
Industry Consensus Standards
and Guidelines 324
Section 5 Rigging Devices
16 Connections, Fittings, and End
Attachments 329
16.1 Seizing Wire Rope 329
16.2 Connections . 331
Spliced Eyes . 332
Ferrules . 334
Mechanical Splice 335
Swivels . 335
16.3 Fittings 335
Swaged Terminations . 335
Collets 336
Sockets 336
Thimbles 341
Clips (Clamps) . 341
Clamp and Thimble 344
Shackles (Clevises) 344
16.4 Attachments . 346
Hooks . 347
Rings and Links . 349
Eye and Ring Bolts 350
Turnbuckles and Bottlescrews 351
Spreader and Equalizing Beams 353
Overhauling Weights . 353
16.5 Care and Maintenance of Parts
and Assemblies . 355
Regulations and Standards 356
OSHA Regulations 356
U.S. Consensus Standards . 356
Industry Consensus Standards
and Guidelines 356
17 Sheaves . 357
17.1 Sheave Selection 358
Types of Sheaves . 358
Sheave Diameter . 359xiv C o n t e n t s
Sheave Material 360
Groove Size and Shape 362
17.2 Care and Maintenance of Sheaves 364
Maintenance Checklist 364
Lubrication 365
17.3 Inspection of Sheaves . 366
Regulations and Standards 368
Industry Consensus Standards
and Guidelines 368
18 Reeving Blocks and Tackles . 369
18.1 Blocks and Tackles 369
Blocks . 369
Tackle . 370
18.2 Selecting the Block 374
Types of Blocks 374
Mechanical Advantage 375
Inverting Tackle 377
Theoretical Gain 377
Coeffi cient of Friction . 377
Loads on Blocks 378
Overhaul Weights 379
18.3 Reeving Tackle Blocks . 379
Balancing Reeving 382
Effect of Friction 382
Number of Line Parts . 383
18.4 Safety Precautions 386
18.5 Care and Maintenance of Tackles . 387
18.6 Inspection of Blocks 388
18.7 Reeving Glossary . 388
19 Winches and Drums 389
19.1 Winches . 389
Winch Reevings 390
Single and Double Line Pull . 390
Lifting with a Winch 391
19.2 Drums 393
Fleet Angle 395
Flat-Faced Drum . 396
Kinking . 397
Unreeling and Uncoiling Wire 397
Regulations and Standards 398
OSHA Regulations 398
U.S. Consensus Standards . 398
Industry Consensus Standards
and Guidelines 398C o n t e n t s xv
Section 6 Rigging Tools
20 Hand Tools and Portable Power
Tools . 401
20.1 Safe Use of Hand-Held Tools . 401
Personal Protective Equipment . 402
Keep Tools in Good Condition . 402
Use Tools the Correct Way . 402
Keep Tools in a Safe Place . 402
20.2 Accident Control . 402
20.3 Care and Maintenance of Tools . 403
Hand-Held Tools . 404
Portable Power Tools (Electric
and Pneumatic) . 405
20.4 Power Tool Safety 406
20.5 Inspection of Tools 406
Hand Tools and Equipment 406
Portable Power Operated Tools
and Equipment 407
Abrasive Wheel Equipment 407
Powder-Actuated Tools . 408
Machine Guarding 408
20.6 Portable Power Tools Safety Inspection
Checklist . 409
Regulations and Standards 412
OSHA Regulations 412
U.S. Consensus Standards . 412
Industry Standards Resources 412
21 Welding and Cutting 413
21.1 Types of Welding Processes 413
Oxyfuel Gas Welding (OFW) . 413
Arc Welding . 413
Filler Metals . 415
21.2 Welding Hazards . 416
Welding Gases . 416
Fumes and Explosions 416
Coated Metal Surfaces 416
Fumes 416
Burns . 416
Radiation and Intense Light . 417
Noise . 417
Respiratory 417
Electric Shock 417xvi C o n t e n t s
21.3 Operation and Maintenance of
Welding Equipment 418
Operation . 418
Maintenance . 419
21.4 Safe Welding Practices 420
Welding Standards . 421
Regulations and Standards 421
OSHA Regulations 421
U.S. Consensus Standards . 422
Industry Standards Resources 422
22 Jacks, Rollers, and Air Skids . 423
22.1 Basic Jack Categories 423
Hand- or Power-Operated
Hydraulic Jacks . 423
Mechanical Ratchet Jacks 424
Hand- or Power-Operated Mechanical
Screw Jacks . 424
22.2 Types of Jacks 424
Hydraulic Bottle Jacks 424
Hand Hydraulic Jacks . 425
Air-Hydraulic Service Jacks 426
Steelworker Jacks . 427
22.3 Operation of Jacks 431
Operating Checklist . 433
22.4 Safety Precautions Using Jacks . 433
22.5 Maintenance of Jacks 434
Testing 434
22.6 Inspection of Jacks Checklist . 435
22.7 Hydraulic Jack Troubleshooting 436
22.8 Plank Skids and Rollers . 437
Plank Skids 437
Rollers 437
22.9 Air Skids and Air Jacks 439
22.10 Blocking and Cribbing 441
22.12 Specialized Hydraulic Jacking
Systems 442
Strand Lifting 442
Cogged Jack-Rod System 443
Steel-Bar Jack-Rod System . 444
Regulations and Standards 445
OSHA Regulations 445
Industry Consensus Standards
and Guidelines 445C o n t e n t s xvii
Section 7 Lifting and Hoisting Machinery
23 Derricks and Cranes 449
23.1 Types of Derricks . 449
Basic Derrick . 450
Chicago Boom . 450
Guy Derrick . 451
Gin-Pole Derrick . 454
Stiff-Leg Derrick 455
Other Derrick Forms 455
23.2 Types of Cranes 457
Mobile Cranes . 457
Booms and Jibs . 468
Tower Cranes 469
Other Types of Cranes . 473
23.3 Operational Considerations 475
Safety Guidelines . 477
23.4 Crane and Derrick Safety 478
Regulations and Standards 479
OSHA Regulations 479
U.S. Consensus Standards . 479
Industry Consensus Standards
and Guidelines 479
24 Forklifts . 481
24.1 Forklift Operational Practices 482
Loading . 483
Traveling 484
Raising or Lowering Workers 485
Stability . 485
Visibility 486
24.2 Environmental Considerations . 486
Protective Gear . 486
Noxious Gases and Fumes . 487
Sound . 487
Work Platform . 487
24.3 Forklift Safety Measures . 489
Warning Devices . 489
Safety Guards 490
Aisles and Obstructions . 490
Lighting . 491
Hazardous Locations . 491
24.4 Safe Forklift Operation 491
24.5 Care and Maintenance of Forklifts 494
Attachments . 495
Batteries . 495xviii C o n t e n t s
24.6 Inspection of Forklifts . 495
Regulations and Standards 497
OSHA Regulations 497
U.S. Consensus Standards . 497
Industry Resources . 497
25 Portable Overhead Hoists . 499
25.1 Chain Hoists . 499
25.2 Electric-Powered, Wire Rope Hoists . 503
25.3 Air-Powered Hoists . 504
25.4 Safe Operating Practices . 505
Operator Training 505
Hoist Attachments 506
Trolley 506
Communication 506
Hand Signals 506
25.5 Operational Tests . 509
Preoperational Inspection 509
25.6 Maintenance and Repair of Hoists 509
Lubrication 511
Hoist Repairs 511
25.7 Inspection of Overhead Hoists . 511
Hand Chain Block 512
Lever Hoists . 512
25.8 Inspection Scheduling . 514
Initial Inspection . 514
Preoperational Inspection 514
Annual Inspection 515
Visual and Record Inspections 517
Regulations and Standards 524
OSHA Regulations 524
U.S. Consensus Standards . 524
26 Personnel/Material Hoists . 525
26.1 Erecting Hoist Towers . 525
26.2 Rack-and-Pinion Hoists . 527
Testing Rack-and-Pinion Hoist
Installation . 527
Operation . 527
26.3 Safe Operating Practices . 528
Overspeed or Drop Test . 529
26.4 Maintenance of Rack-and-Pinion Hoists . 530
Lubrication Schedule 530
26.5 Troubleshooting Rack-and-Pinion Hoists . 530
26.6 Hydrostatic Drive (Wire Rope) Hoists . 531C o n t e n t s xix
26.7 Safe Hydrostatic Drive Hoist
Operating Practices 532
Broken-Rope Safety Test . 532
26.8 Maintenance of Hydrostatic Drive Hoists 533
Maintenance Checklist 533
Troubleshooting Hydrostatic Hoists . 533
26.9 Dismantling Hoist Towers . 541
Regulations and Standards 541
OSHA Regulations 541
U.S. Consensus Standards . 541
Industry Standards Resources 541
27 Helicopters 543
27.1 Planning Lifting Operations . 543
27.2 Support Systems . 545
27.3 Operations Briefing . 546
27.4 Operational Procedures . 548
27.5 Lifting Components 549
Slings and Tag Lines 549
Cargo Hooks . 550
Reduced Strength Factor 552
27.6 Personnel Safety 552
Regulations and Standards 553
OSHA Regulations 553
U.S. Consensus Standards . 553
Section 8 Scaffolding and Ladders
28 Scaffolding Systems 557
28.1 Types of Scaffolds 558
28.2 Scaffolding Safety Guidelines 558
General Safety . 559
28.3 Erection and Use of Scaffolds 559
Frame Scaffolds 560
Tube- and Clamp-Scaffolds and
System Scaffolds 560
Continuous (Running) Scaffolds 560
Free-Standing Scaffold Towers . 561
Brackets and Cantilevered Platforms 561
Planking 562
Putlogs and Trusses . 562
Rolling Scaffolds, Additional
Guidelines 562
28.4 Dismantling Scaffolding . 563
28.5 Care and Maintenance of Scaffolds 563xx C o n t e n t s
28.6 Inspection of Scaffolding Systems . 564
Regulations and Standards 570
OSHA Regulations 570
U.S. Consensus Standards . 570
29 Swinging or Suspended Scaffolds 571
29.1 Swinging Scaffolds . 571
Scaffold Construction . 571
Plank-type Platforms 573
Suspension Systems 574
Safety Belts and Lifelines 575
Trolley Cables 576
Wire Rope Support . 576
29.2 Suspended Scaffolds 577
29.3 Safety Cage and Bosun’s Chair . 578
Regulations and Standards 579
OSHA Regulations 579
U.S. Consensus Standards . 580
30 Stationary Scaffolds 581
30.1 Wood Pole and Planking
Scaffolds . 581
Bracing 585
Joining 587
Planking 588
Guardrails and Toeboards . 588
30.2 Metal Tubular Scaffolds . 588
Ties and Lateral Stability 590
Protection Fans and Nets 591
Loading Platforms 591
Corrosion . 591
Protective Surface Finishes . 592
Tubular Metal Scaffolding Types 593
30.3 Tube-and-Coupler Scaffolding . 593
Scaffold Erection . 595
Installing Planking and Toeboards 596
30.4 Welded Sectional Steel Scaffolding 598
30.5 Welded Aluminum Alloy Scaffolding . 599
Regulations and Standards 600
OSHA Regulations 600
U.S. Consensus Standards . 600
31 Specialized Scaffolds . 601
31.1 Outrigger Scaffold 601
31.2 Mason’s Adjustable Multipoint
Suspension Scaffold 602C o n t e n t s xxi
31.3 Needle-Beam Scaffold . 603
31.4 Interior-Hung Scaffold 605
31.5 Carpenter’s Bracket Scaffold . 606
31.6 Bricklayer’s Square Scaffold . 607
31.7 Miscellaneous Scaffolds . 608
Horse Scaffold . 608
Ladder-Jack Scaffold 609
Window-Jack Scaffold . 610
Bosun’s Chair 610
31.8 Manually Propelled Mobile Scaffold 611
31.9 Safe Use of Mobile Scaffolds . 613
Regulations and Standards 613
OSHA Regulations 613
U.S. Consensus Standards . 614
32 Safe Scaffolding Practices and Glossary . 615
32.1 Scaffolding Safe Practices 615
32.2 Scaffolding Glossary 617
Regulations and Standards 619
OSHA Regulations 619
U.S. Consensus Standards . 620
Industry Consensus Standards
Resources 620
33 Portable Ladders . 621
33.1 Types of Portable Ladders . 621
Stepladders 621
Portable Rung Ladders 622
Special Ladders 628
33.2 Job-Made Wood Ladders . 628
Materials 629
Side Rails 629
Cleats . 631
Attaching Cleats 632
33.3 Ladder Specifications . 632
33.4 Care and Maintenance of
Portable Ladders 633
Wood Ladder Maintenance Checklist 635
Metal Ladder Maintenance Checklist 637
Plastic Ladder Maintenance Checklist . 637
Storage and Transportation
of Ladders 638
33.5 Safe Use of Ladders and Stairways 638
33.6 Inspection of Portable Ladders . 641
33.7 Temporary Ladders and Portable
Ladders Glossary 644xxii C o n t e n t s
Regulations and Standards 645
OSHA Standards . 645
U.S. Consensus Standards . 645
Industry Standards Resources 645
Section 9 Protective Equipment and Devices
34 Personal Protective Equipment . 649
34.1 Bodily Protection . 649
Head Protection 650
Eye and Face Protection . 650
Hand Protection 651
Foot Protection . 651
Body Protection 652
Cleanup . 652
34.2 Hearing Protection . 652
34.3 Respiratory Protection 653
Regulations and Standards 655
OSHA Regulations 655
U.S. Consensus Standards . 655
35 Protective Devices 657
35.1 Safety Belts, Harnesses, and Lanyards . 657
35.2 Life Jackets, Ring Buoys,
and Lifesaving Skiffs . 657
35.3 Safety Nets 659
Regulations and Standards 661
OSHA/USCG Regulations . 661
U.S. Consensus Standards . 661
Section 10 Safety, Health, and Security
36 Personal Safety and Health 665
36.1 Safety and Health Management Program 665
Management . 666
Worksite Analysis 666
36.2 Hazard Prevention and Control 667
Safety and Health Training . 669
36.3 Hazard Analysis and Safety Training 669
Hazards Analysis . 670
Safety Training . 670
36.4 Worksite Inspection . 671
Inspection Frequency . 671
Inspection Program . 672
Regulations and Standards 673
OSHA Regulations 673C o n t e n t s xxiii
U.S. Consensus Standards . 673
Industry Consensus Standards
and Guidelines 673
37 Project Safety and Security 675
37.1 Safe Access onto Construction Site 675
Temporary Route . 675
Barriers . 676
37.2 Hazard Awareness 677
37.3 Construction Site Safety . 678
Scaffolding 678
Fall Protection 678
Electrical Safety 679
Floor and Wall Openings 679
Elevated Surfaces . 679
37.4 Construction Site Security . 680
Perimeter Fencing, Gates, and Locks 680
Signage . 680
Site Lighting . 681
Offi ce Trailers and Temporary
Buildings . 681
Storage Containers . 681
Motorized Equipment . 681
Regulations and Standards 682
OSHA Regulations 682
U.S. Consensus Standards . 682
38 Fire Safety . 683
38.1 Major Causes of Construction Site Fires . 683
38.2 Fire Prevention Guidelines . 683
38.3 Emergency Procedures 684
38.4 Fire Prevention/Protection Checklist 684
General Requirements . 685
Fire Prevention . 685
Temporary Heating Devices 686
38.5 Selecting Portable Fire Extinguishers 686
General Requirements . 686
Selection and Distribution . 687
Fire Extinguisher Size and Spacing 687
38.6 Inspection, Maintenance, and Testing of Fire
Extinguishers . 689
Hydrostatic Testing . 689
Maintenance and Testing Frequency 689
Training and Education . 691
38.7 Flammables and Combustibles . 691
Flammable Liquid 691
Combustible Liquid . 691xxiv C o n t e n t s
Regulations and Standards 692
OSHA Regulations 692
U.S. Consensus Standards . 692
Industry Consensus Standards
and Guidelines 692
A Bibliography . 693
Rigging . 693
Building Codes . 693
Standards—Construction and
Demolition . 693
Design Loads 694
Lighting . 694
Lifting and Hoisting Equipment 694
Metal Structural Members . 694
OSHA . 694
Safety and Health 694
Scaffolding 694
Security . 695
Signaling Systems 695
Welding . 695
Wood . 695
B Acronyms . 697
C OSHA Regulations . 699
Construction Safety and Health—29
CFR 1926 . 699
D Government Agencies 707
E Construction Safety and Health Standards
(ANSI, ASME, AWS, NFPA, SAE, UL) . 709
Accident Prevention (ANSI) . 709
Personal Protection (ANSI) 709
Worksite Safety (ANSI) 710
Fire Protection (ANSI) . 711
Construction Equipment (ASME) . 711
Vehicles, Surface—Sound Levels (SAE) . 712
F Standard Writing Resources . 715
G Document Distributors . 717
H Industry Resources . 721
Index
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