Fundamentals of CNC Machining

Fundamentals of CNC Machining
اسم المؤلف
Autodesk
التاريخ
12 مايو 2019
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Fundamentals of CNC Machining
A Practical Guide for Beginners
Compliments of Autodesk, Inc.
Chapter  1:
Introduction &  CNC  Process
Overview
Description 1-­?3
Prerequisites 1-­?3
Audience 1-­?3
Course  Design 1-­?3
SRP  vs.  RP 1-­?4
Prototype  vs.  Production  Machining . 1-­?4
Required  Tools  and  Equipment . 1-­?4
Lessons  and  Appendices 1-­?5
Instructional  Resources . 1-­?5
Recommended  Use . 1-­?6
Overview  of  CAD/CAM  Process . 1-­?6
Chapter  2:
Shop Safety
Overview . 2-­?3
Safety  Awareness 2-­?3
Personal  Conduct  &  Shop  Etiquette 2-­?4
Shop  Clothing 2-­?4
Proper  Shop  Attire  Illustration . 2-­?5
General  Safety  Practices 2-­?6
CNC  Safety  Practices 2-­?6
Safety  Contract 2-­?7
Safety  Contract  Form . 2-­?8
Chapter  3:
CNC  Tools
Overview . 3-­?3
End  Mills 3-­?3
Face  Mill 3-­?4
Corner  Radius  Mill . 3-­?5
Slot  Mill/Slotting  Saw 3-­?5
Center-­?Spot  Drill 3-­?5
Twist  Drill . 3-­?6
Tap . 3-­?6
Reamer 3-­?7
Counterbore 3-­?8
Cutting  Tool  Fundamentals . 3-­?8
Rotational  Direction . 3-­?8
Chip  Formation 3-­?8
Chip  Load . 3-­?9
Climb  vs.  Conventional  Milling . 3-­?9
Cutting  Speeds  and  Feeds  Formulas 3-­?10
Speed  Formula . 3-­?11
Feed  Formula . 3-­?12
Tap  Feed  Formula 3-­?12
Speed/Feed  Examples . 3-­?13
Milling  Speed/Feed  Example 3-­?13
Drill  Speed/Feed  Example 3-­?14
Table  of  ContentsFundamentals  of  CNC  Machining Contents
ii
Tap  Speed/Feed  Example . 3-­?15
Maximum  Spindle  Speed  Example . 3-­?16
Cutting  Data . 3-­?17
Best  Practices  Machining  Parameters 3-­?18
Troubleshooting  Speed/Feed  Problems . 3-­?19
Chapter  4:
Coordinate  Systems
Overview . 4-­?3
Cartesian  Coordinate  System 4-­?3
Number  Line 4-­?3
3D  Cartesian  Coordinate  System . 4-­?3
Quadrants 4-­?4
Units 4-­?5
Vertical  Machining  Center  (VMC)  Motion . 4-­?5
CNC  Motion  Control . 4-­?6
CNC  Machine  Coordinates . 4-­?6
About  Machine  Home  Position 4-­?7
Work  Coordinate  System  (WCS) 4-­?8
WCS  Example-­?1 4-­?9
WCS  Example-­?2 4-­?10
WCS  Example-­?3 4-­?11
Machine  and  Tool  Offsets . 4-­?12
Machine  Offset  XY 4-­?12
Machine  Offset  Z 4-­?13
Tool  Lenght  Offset  (TLO) 4-­?13
Chapter  5:
CNC  Programming  Language
Overview . 5-­?3
CNC  Language  and  Structure . 5-­?3
Program  Format . 5-­?4
CNC  Editor . 5-­?4
Alphabetic  &  Special Character Address  Codes . 5-­?5
Alphabetic  Address  Code  Definitions . 5-­?5
G&M  Codes . 5-­?8
G-­?Codes 5-­?8
M-­?Codes . 5-­?8
Select  G-­?Code  Definitions  (Expanded) . 5-­?9
Canned  Cycles 5-­?10
Chapter  6:
CNC  Operation
Overview  of  CNC  Setup  and  Operation . 6-­?3
Machine  and  Tool  Offsets . 6-­?5
Fixture  Offset  XY 6-­?5
Fixture  Offset  Z 6-­?6
Tool  Length  Offset  (TLO) 6-­?7
Haas  Control  Face 6-­?8
Haas  Keyboard . 6-­?9
Start/Home  Machine . 6-­?10
Load  Tools . 6-­?11
Set  Tool  Length  Offset  (TLO) . 6-­?13
Set  Fixture  Offset  XY 6-­?17Contents Fundamentals  of  CNC  Machining
iii
Set  Fixture  Offset  Z 6-­?21
Load  CNC  Program . 6-­?24
Run  CNC  Program 6-­?26
Adjusting  Diameter  (CDC)  Offsets . 6-­?27
Shut  Down  CNC . 6-­?29
Chapter  7:
2D  Milling  Toolpaths
Overview . 7-­?3
2D/3D/4X/5X  Defined 7-­?3
2D  (Prismatic)  Parts 7-­?3
3D  Parts 7-­?4
4-­?Axis  Parts 7-­?4
Standard  CAD  Views  vs.  CAM  Views 7-­?6
CAD  Features  vs.  Machining  Features . 7-­?6
Toolpaths  by  Type  and  Use . 7-­?7
2D  Machining  Features  Example 7-­?8
2D  Toolpath  Terminology 7-­?9
Facing 7-­?10
2D  Contouring . 7-­?11
Cutter  Diameter  Compensation . 7-­?12
Pocketing . 7-­?13
Slot  Milling . 7-­?14
Chamfer  Milling . 7-­?15
Radius  (Corner-­?Round)  Milling 7-­?16
Center  Drill 7-­?17
Drilling . 7-­?18
Tapping 7-­?19
Chapter  8:
CNC  Turning
Overview . 8-­?3
Lathe  Components . 8-­?4
Spindle . 8-­?5
Turret . 8-­?6
Lathe  Coordinate  System 8-­?8
Driven  (Live)  Tools . 8-­?9
Imaginary  Tool  Tip . 8-­?10
Part  Datum 8-­?11
Tools  and  Tool  Holders 8-­?12
Chip  Breaker . 8-­?12
Relief  Angle 8-­?13
Tool  Cutting  Angles 8-­?13
Rake  Angle . 8-­?14
Insert  Designations 8-­?15
Lathe  Tool  Types 8-­?17
Face/Turn  Tools . 8-­?17
Groove  Tool 8-­?18
Bore  Tool 8-­?19
Thread  Tool 8-­?20
Cutoff  Tool . 8-­?21
Cutting  Speeds  and  Feeds . 8-­?22
Speed/Feed  Example . 8-­?23
Cutting  Feed  Example 8-­?24
Lathe  Setup  and  Programming  Example . 8-­?25
Setup 8-­?26Fundamentals  of  CNC  Machining Contents
iv
Face 8-­?27
Rough . 8-­?28
Finish 8-­?29
Groove . 8-­?30
Thread 8-­?31
Drill . 8-­?32
Bore 8-­?33
Cutoff . 8-­?34
Chapter  9:
3D  Toolpaths
Overview . 9-­?3
3D  Cutter  Compensation . 9-­?3
Tolerances . 9-­?4
3D  Toolpath  Setups . 9-­?6
3D  Roughing 9-­?6
Parallel  Finish 9-­?7
Scallop  Height 9-­?8
3D  Scallop 9-­?9
REST  Milling . 9-­?10
Pencil  Toolpaths 9-­?11
Conceptualizing  3D  Toolpaths . 9-­?12
Chapter  10:
Milling  Setups
Overview . 10-­?3
Fixture  Components 10-­?3
Subplates  and  Angle  Plates . 10-­?3
Clamps 10-­?4
Shoulder  Bolts  and  Dowel  Pins 10-­?5
Vise  Accessories 10-­?5
Hard  Jaws . 10-­?6
Soft  Jaws 10-­?6
Appendix  A:
CNC  Milling  Work-­?Holding  Examples
Project  1 :  Install  Vise A-­?2
Project  2 :  Install  Vise  Jaws A-­?4
Project  3 :  Square  Block .A-­?5
Project  4 :  Contour  Square  Step A-­?13
Project  5 :  Base A-­?16
Project  6 :  Housing A-­?21
Project  7 :  Fan  Blades A-­?23
Project  8 :  Clamp .A-­?29
Project  9 :  Fixture  Plate .A-­?31
Project  10 :  French  Curve A-­?33
Project  11 :  Honeycomb A-­?38
Project  12 :  Bracket .A-­?40
Project  13 :  Microwave  Housing A-­?49
Project  14 :  Geneva  Gear .A-­?57Contents Fundamentals  of  CNC  Machining
v
Appendix  B:
Alternate  Tool  Setting  Methods
List  of  Common  Methods B-­?1
Using  Paper .B-­?2
1-­?2-­?3  Block  on  Finished  Part  Face B-­?3
1-­?2-­?3  Block  and  Dial  Indicator .B-­?4
Tool  Probe .B-­?4
Appendix  C:
CNC  Process  Planning  Form
CNC  Process  Planning  Form C-­?1,  C-­?2
Appendix  D:
G-­?M  Code  Reference
Milling  G-­? Codes D-­?1
Milling  M-­?Codes D-­?2
Lathe  G-­?Codes . D-­?3,  D-­?4
Lathe  M-­?Codes D-­?4
Appendix  E:
Glossary
Glossary E-­?1,  E-­?2
Appendix  F:
Drill  Chart
Drill  Chart . F-­?1,  F-­?2
Inch  Pipe  Threads F-­?4
Metric  Taps F-­?5
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