Engineering Design Process

Engineering Design Process
اسم المؤلف
Yousef Haik, Tamer Shahin
التاريخ
21 يونيو 2019
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Engineering Design Process
Second Edition
Yousef Haik
University of North Carolina—Greensboro
Tamer Shahin
Kings College London, UK
Preface xv
Chapter 1 Introduction 2
1.1 Objectives 3
1.2 Definition of Engineering Design 3
1.2.1 Design Levels 3
1.3 Importance and Challenges of Engineering Design 4
1.4 Introduction to Systematic Design 6
1.5 Design Process 8
1.5.1 Identifying Customer Needs (Requirements) 12
1.5.2 Market Analysis (Requirements) 14
1.5.3 Defining Goals (Requirements) 15
1.5.4 Establishing Functions (Product Concept) 16
1.5.5 Task Specifications (Product Concept) 18
1.5.6 Conceptualization (Solution Concept) 19
1.5.7 Evaluating Alternatives (Solution Concept) 20
1.5.8 Embodiment Design 20
1.5.9 Analysis and Optimization 20
1.5.10 Experiment 21
1.5.11 Marketing 21
1.6 Professionalism and Ethics 22
1.6.1 NSPE Code of Ethics 22
LAB 1: Ethics 27
LAB 2: Ethics and Moral Frameworks 33
1.7 Problems 38
1.7.1 Team Activities 38
1.7.2 Individual Activities 38
1.8 Selected Bibliography 40
Chapter 2 Essential Transferable Skills 42
2.1 Objectives 43
2.2 Working In Teams 43
2.2.1 Forming a Team 44
LAB 3: Ice Breaking—Forming Teams 45
2.2.2 Dynamics of a Team 51
LAB 4: Team Dynamics 54
2.3 Scheduling 55
2.3.1 Gantt Chart 56
2.3.2 CPM/PERT 57
Contents
ix2.3.3 CPM/PERT Definitions 57
2.3.4 CPM/PERT Network Development 58
LAB 5: Project Management (Microsoft Project) 61
2.4 Research Skills 82
2.5 Technical Writing and Presentation 83
2.5.1 Steps in Writing a Report 84
2.5.2 Illustration Guidelines 85
2.5.3 Mechanics of Writing 86
2.6 Presentation Style 87
2.6.1 Objective 87
2.6.2 Oral Presentation Obstacles 88
2.6.3 Oral Presentation Dos and Don’ts 88
2.6.4 Oral Presentation Techniques 89
2.6.5 Question/Answer Session 89
LAB 6: Presentation Style 90
2.7 Problems 94
2.7.1 Team Activities 94
2.7.2 Individual Activities 94
2.8 Selected Bibliography 97
Chapter 3 Identifying Needs and Gathering
Information (Market Analysis) 98
3.1 Objectives 99
3.2 Problem Definition: Need Statement 99
3.3 Gathering Information: Clarifying the Need 101
3.4 How To Conduct a Market Analysis 102
3.4.1 Define the Problem 102
3.4.2 Develop a Strategy 104
3.4.3 Organize and Check the Information Gathered 105
3.5 Relevant Information Resources 106
3.5.1 Product Information 106
3.5.2 Industry Information 106
3.5.3 Company Information 108
3.5.4 Market Information 109
3.6 Web Tools 110
3.7 Case Study: Automatic Aluminum Can Crusher 110
3.7.1 Need Statement 110
3.7.2 Market Research 110
3.7.3 Market Information 111
3.7.4 Patents 112
3.8 Problems 112
3.8.1 Team Activities 112
3.8.2 Individual Activities 113
3.9 Selected Bibliography 113
Chapter 4 Customer Requirements 114
4.1 Objectives 115
x Contents4.2 Identifying Customer Requirements 115
4.3 Prioritizing Customer Requirements 116
4.4 Case Study: Automatic Aluminum Can Crusher—Requirements 118
4.5 Organizing Customer Requirements—Objective Tree 120
4.6 Case Study: Automatic Aluminum Can Crusher—Objective Tree 123
LAB 7: Kano Model Customer Needs Assessment 126
4.7 Problems 129
4.7.1 Team Activities 129
4.8 Selected Bibliography 131
Chapter 5 Establishing Functional Structure 132
5.1 Objectives 133
5.2 Functions 134
5.3 Function Decomposition and Structure 134
5.3.1 Bounding Box and Overall Function Diagram 134
5.3.2 Function Tree 136
5.3.3 Function Structure 137
5.4 Detailed Procedure to Establish Functional Structures 139
5.5 Function Structure Examples 140
5.6 Reverse Engineering 144
5.6.1 Reverse Engineering Example—Dishwasher 145
5.7 Reverse Engineering Example—Paper Stapler 147
LAB 8: Reverse Engineering 148
5.8 Problems 149
5.8.1 Team Activities 149
5.9 Selected Bibliography 150
Chapter 6 Specifications 152
6.1 Objectives 153
6.2 Performance-Specification Method 156
6.3 Case Study Specification Table: Automatic Can Crusher 158
6.4 Quality-Function-Deployment Method 159
6.5 House of Quality: Automatic Can Crusher 165
6.6 Problems 169
6.6.1 Team Activities 169
6.6.2 Individual Activities 170
6.7 Selected Bibliography 171
Chapter 7 Developing Concepts 172
7.1 Objectives 173
7.2 Developing Working Structures 174
7.3 Steps to Develop Concepts From Functions 176
7.4 Brainstorming 177
7.4.1 Mechanism of Brainstorming Session 177
7.4.2 Ideation 178
7.5 Creativity 179
7.5.1 How to Increase Your Level of Creativity 180
Contents xi7.6 Developing Concepts—Samples 182
7.6.1 Mechanical Vent 182
7.6.2 Wheelchair Retrieval Unit 182
7.6.3 Automatic Can Crusher 185
7.7 Problems 185
7.7.1 Team Activities 185
7.7.2 Individual Activities 188
7.8 Selected Bibliography 188
Chapter 8 Concepts Evaluation 190
8.1 Objectives 191
8.2 Sketch Assembly of Alternatives 192
8.3 Evaluating Conceptual Alternatives 192
8.3.1 Pugh’s Evaluation Matrix 194
8.3.2 Decision Matrix 195
8.4 Concepts Evaluation: Machine Shop Kit 197
8.5 Concepts Evaluation: Automatic Can Crusher 202
8.6 Problems 210
8.6.1 Team Activities 210
8.6.2 Individual Activities 210
8.7 Selected Bibliography 210
Chapter 9 Embodiment Design 212
9.1 Objectives 213
9.2 Product Drawings 214
9.3 Prototype 216
9.4 Design for “X” 217
9.4.1 Design for Manufacturing 217
9.4.2 Design for Assembly 218
9.4.3 Design for Environment 218
9.5 Safety Considerations 218
9.5.1 Safety Analysis Techniques 218
9.6 Human Factors 219
9.6.1 Human Sensory Capabilities 220
9.6.2 Anthropometric Data 221
LAB 9: Ergonomics 222
9.7 Problems 228
9.7.1 Team Activities 228
9.8 Selected Bibliography 229
Chapter 10 Detailed Design 230
10.1 Objectives 231
10.2 Analysis 232
10.3 Material Selection 232
10.3.1 Material Classifications and Properties 233
10.3.2 Material Selection Process 233
10.3.3 Primary Manufacturing Methods 235
xii Contents10.4 Material Selection Theory–An Introduction 235
10.4.1 Density 235
10.4.2 Melting Point 236
10.4.3 Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion 236
10.4.4 Thermal Conductivity 236
10.4.5 Strength of Material 236
10.4.6 Ductility 237
10.4.7 Fatigue Properties 237
10.4.8 Impact Properties 237
10.4.9 Hardness 238
10.5 Bill of Material 238
LAB 10: Material Selection Tutorial 239
10.6 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing 241
LAB 11: Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing 243
LAB 12: Use of Pro/MECHANICA® for Structural Analysis 243
10.7 Analysis Example: Mechanical Vegetable Harvesting Machine 250
10.8 Cost Analysis 257
10.9 Costs Classifications 258
10.10 Cost Estimate Methods 259
10.11 Labor Costs 261
10.12 Product Pricing 261
10.12.1 Break-Even Chart 261
10.12.2 Linear Programming 263
10.13 Problems 265
10.13.1 Team Activities 265
10.13.2 Individual Activities 266
10.14 Selected Bibliography 269
Chapter 11 Selection of Design Projects 270
11.1 Design Project Rules 271
11.2 Aluminum Can Crusher 273
11.2.1 Objective 273
11.2.2 Specifications 273
11.3 Coin Sorting Contest 273
11.3.1 Objective 273
11.3.2 Constraints 274
11.4 Model (Toy) Solar Car 274
11.4.1 Objective 274
11.4.2 Specifications 274
11.5 Workshop Training Kit 275
11.5.1 Specifications 275
11.6 Shopping Carts 275
11.6.1 Specifications 275
11.7 Mechanical Vents 276
11.7.1 Specifications 276
11.8 All Terrain Vehicle 276
11.9 Pocket-Sized Umbrella 277
Contents xiii11.10 Model of Therapeutic Wheelchair 277
11.11 Disposable Blood Pump 277
11.12 Newspaper Vending Machine 278
11.13 Peace Corps Group Projects 278
11.13.1 Projects 278
11.13.2 Materials 279
11.13.3 Machining 279
11.13.4 Deliverables 279
Index 280
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