ASM Handbook Vol 14B – Metalworking (Sheet Forming)

ASM Handbook Vol 14B – Metalworking (Sheet Forming)
اسم المؤلف
ASM International Handbook Committee
التاريخ
28 سبتمبر 2017
المشاهدات
التقييم
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ASM Handbook Vol 14B – Metalworking (Sheet Forming)
ASM International Handbook Committee
Contents
Introduction . 1
Introduction to Sheet-Forming Processes
S.L. Semiatin 3
Historical Perspective 3
Classification of Sheet-Forming Processes . 3
Process-Related Developments . 4
Rapid Prototyping and Flexible Manufacturing
Techniques . 6
Materials-Related Developments 7
Process Simulation, Design, and Control 8
Future Outlook . 9
Design for Sheet Forming
Howard Kuhn 11
Hole Punching . 11
Flanging . 12
Beads and Ribs 14
Large Recesses 14
Scrap Reduction 18
Shearing, Cutting, Blanking, and Piercing . 21
Cutting Operations 23
Mechanical Methods of Cutting 23
Gas Cutting 24
Electric Arc Cutting 25
Laser Cutting . 26
Abrasive Waterjet Cutting . 26
Principles of Shearing, Blanking, and Piercing 28
Shear Action in Metalcutting 28
Deformation . 29
Penetration . 29
Clearance . 29
Stripping Force 30
Shearing Force . 30
Diameter-to-Thickness Ratios . 33
Limitations of Punching 33
Die Clearances and Stripping Forces 33
Shearing of Sheet, Strip, and Plate
L. Chen 39
Straight-Knife Shearing . 39
Rotary Shearing . 43
Safety . 44
Flattening, Leveling, Slitting, and Shearing of Coiled Product
L. Chen 46
Flattening and Leveling . 46
Flatteners and Levelers 47
Principle of Shape Correction . 48
Shape Corrections 49
Slitting . 50
Cut-to-Length Lines 54
Selection of Materials for Shearing, Blanking, and Piercing
Tools 57
Shearing Process 57
Wear 57
Wear Control . 58
Shear-Blade Tool Steels 61
Materials for Machine Knives . 63
Selection of Material for Blanking and Piercing Dies 65
Trimming Operations 69
Analysis of Parts to be Trimmed . 69
Selection of Trimming Dies 69
Rough and Finish Trimming . 71
Construction Details of Trimming Dies 71
Selection of Presses for Trimming 72
Scrap Handling 72
Material Handling in Trimming 72
Combined Operations 73
Other Cutting Methods
Oxyfuel Gas Cutting 74
Principles of Operation 74
Process Capabilities . 74
Properties of Fuel Gases 75
Fuel Types . 76
Effect of Oxyfuel Cutting on Base Metal . 79
Equipment 81
Starting the Cut 84
Light Cutting . 84
Medium Cutting 85
Heavy Cutting 85
Stack Cutting . 86
Preparation of Weld Edges 87
Applicable Shapes . 88
Gas Cutting versus Alternate Methods . 90
Close-Tolerance Cutting 91
Oxyfuel Gouging . 91
Other Gas Cutting Methods . 92
Safety . 95
Electric Arc Cutting 96
Plasma Arc Cutting . 96
Air-Carbon Arc Cutting . 104
Other Electric Arc Cutting Methods . 109
ixLaser Cutting . 111
Definition of a Laser 111
Laser Types . 111
CO2 Lasers . 113
Nd:YAG Laser . 113
Competing Cutting Methods . 114
General Cutting Principles 115
Process Variables . 115
Material Conditions . 117
System Equipment . 117
Laser-Cutting Applications . 118
Abrasive Waterjet Cutting . 120
Process Development 120
Advantages and Limitations 120
Cutting Principle 120
Abrasive System Components . 121
Abrasives . 122
Abrasive Waterjet Speeds . 123
Factors Affecting Cut Quality . 125
Applications . 127
Safety . 129
Blanking and Piercing
Blanking and Piercing . 130
Fundamentals of Cutting . 130
Blanking Operations 132
Piercing Operations . 137
Fine-Edge Blanking and Piercing . 141
Blanking of Low-Carbon Steel . 144
Methods of Blanking in Presses 144
Characteristics of Blanked Edges 147
Die Clearance 147
Calculation of Force Requirements . 147
Factors That Affect Processing . 148
Selection of Work Metal Form . 148
Blank Layout . 149
Welded Blanks 150
Presses . 150
Construction and Use of Short-Run Dies 150
Construction and Use of Conventional Dies . 152
Operating Conditions 155
Effect of Work Metal Thickness . 155
Accuracy 156
Shaving 156
Burr Removal 157
Blanking in Presses versus Alternative Methods 157
Safety . 157
Piercing of Low-Carbon Steel . 158
Characteristics of Pierced Holes . 158
Quality of Hole Wall . 158
Selection of Die Clearance 158
Edges . 159
Effect of Tool Dulling . 160
Use of Small Clearance . 160
Use of Large Clearance . 160
Clearance and Tool Size 161
Force Requirements . 162
Presses . 163
Tools 163
Use of Compound Dies . 164
Use of Progressive Dies 164
Use of Transfer Dies . 165
Hole Size . 166
Piercing of Thick Stock . 166
Piercing of Thin Stock . 166
Effect of Forming Requirements . 167
Piercing Holes at an Angle to the Surface 167
Special Piercing Techniques . 168
Shaving 169
High-Carbon Steels . 169
Blanking and Piercing of Electrical Steel Sheet . 171
Materials 171
Presses . 172
Auxiliary Equipment . 172
Dies 173
Selection of Die Materials . 174
Effect of Stock Thickness . 174
Effect of Work Metal Composition and Condition on
Blanking and Piercing . 175
Camber and Flatness . 175
Burr Height 176
Lubrication 176
Core Plating . 176
Fine-Edge Blanking
T.C. Lee, C.Y. Tang, L.C. Chan 177
Difference between Fine-Blanking and Conventional
Blanking 177
Design of the Fine-Blanking Process 178
Quality of the Cut Edge . 179
Advantages and Limitations 179
Working Material 181
Fine-Blanking Tooling and Lubrication 183
Fine-Blanking Press . 187
Alternative Tooling and Equipment 187
Application and Development in the Future . 188
Equipment for Forming of Sheet Metal 191
Presses and Auxiliary Equipment for Forming of Sheet Metal 193
Types of Presses 193
Press Frames 194
Mechanical Presses 199
Hydraulic Presses 202
Number of Slides . 202
Press Selection . 204
Press Accuracy 204
Press Capacity . 205
Press Accessories . 205
Die Cushions . 206
Auxiliary Equipment . 207
Presses for High Production 210
Press Safety . 211
Press Brakes . 212
Mechanical and Hydraulic Press Brakes . 213
Bending Capacity 215
Press-Brake Tooling 217
Die Sets 221
Functional Requirements . 221
Die-Set Nomenclature . 221
The Shank: Functions and Variations . 221
Alignment Considerations . 221
Application Requirements . 222
Punch and Die Holders 222
Plate Flatness and Parallelism . 222
Guide Posts and Guide Bushings 222
Abrasive Wear in Die Sets 223
Geometrical Considerations 224
Abrasion and Seizure Testing Methods 224
Endurance Testing . 224
Die-Set Recommendations 225
Press Feeders . 226
Types of Material 226
Air Feeds . 227
Types of Jobs . 227
Accuracy Control Techniques . 228
Special Speeds . 230
Air Circuits 230
Maintenance and Life 230
General Job-Shop Problems 231
Multiple-Slide Machines and Tooling 232
Machine Construction . 232
Advantages of Multiple-Slide Machines . 232
Factors in Selecting Multiple-Slide Machines 233
Tool Planning and Design . 233
Materials 234
Designing Four-Slide Parts . 234
Cutoff Methods 236
Tooling and Lubrication for Forming of Sheet, Strip
and Plate . 239
Wear and Lubrication of Sheet-Metal Forming Dies . 241
Wear in Shallow Forming Dies . 241
Wear in Deep-Drawing Dies . 242
Lubrication and Wear Process Conditions 244
Selection and Use of Lubricants in Forming of Sheet Metal . 248
Surfaces . 248
Lubrication Mechanisms . 248
Solid Lubricants 249
Fluid Lubricants 250
Lubricant Chemistry 251
Lubricant Types . 254
Lubricant Effectiveness . 257
Lubricant Application 258
Control of Lubricant Characteristics . 258
In-Plant Control . 259
Lubricant Toxicity . 259
Microbiology of Lubricants 259
Environmental and Occupational Health Concerns 260
Lubricant Selection 260
Selection of Materials for Press-Forming Dies . 265
Selection Factors . 265
Cast Iron 270
Steels 270
Nonferrous Die Materials 272
Plastic Die Materials . 274
Selection of Materials for Deep-Drawing Dies . 276
Die Performance 276
Materials for Specific Tools 276
Combating Specific Service Problems 277
Die Manufacture by Electrical Discharge Machining 280
Fundamentals of Electrical Discharge Erosion . 280
Principles of Electrical Discharge Machining 281
Principles and Features of Orbital-Movement
EDM 282
Wire EDM . 282
Effect of Recast Layer on Surface Integrity and
Fatigue Life . 284
EDM Electrodes 284
Electrochemical Machining . 285
Progressive Dies 287
Factors in Selecting Progressive Dies . 287
Strip Development for Progressive Dies . 287
General Design Features of Progressive Dies . 290
Auxiliary Equipment . 290
Presses Used with Progressive Dies 291
Forming Processes for Sheet, Strip and Plate 293
Bending of Sheet Metal . 295
Bending Theory . 295
Bending Calculations 297
Bending Operations . 298
Stress-Strain Behavior in Bending 299
Bendability 305
Press-Brake Forming . 307
Principles . 307
Applicability 307
Press Brakes . 307
Selection of Machine . 308
Dies and Punches . 309
Special Dies and Punches 310
Dies for Shearing, Lancing, Blanking, Piercing,
and Notching . 312
Rotary Bending 312
Selection of Tool Material 312
Procedures for Specific Shapes . 314
Effect of Work Metal Variables on Results 315
Dimensional Accuracy 316
Press-Brake Forming versus Alternative Processes 317
Safety . 318
Deep Drawing
Mahmoud Y. Demeri 319
Fundamentals of Drawing . 320
Drawability 320
Defects in Drawing 321
Presses . 321
Dies 323
Effects of Process Variables in Deep Drawing . 324
Materials for Deep Drawing 328
Redrawing Operations . 329
Ironing . 330
xiDrawing of Boxlike Shells 331
Drawing of Workpieces with Flanges . 331
Drawing of Hemispheres . 332
Reducing Drawn Shells . 332
Expanding Drawn Workpieces 332
Deep Drawing of Pressure Vessels . 333
Deep Drawing Using Fluid-Forming Presses 333
Ejection of Workpieces . 333
Trimming . 334
Developed Blanks versus Final Trimming 335
Cleaning of Workpieces 335
Dimensional Accuracy 335
Safety . 336
Stretch Forming
Mahmoud Y. Demeri 337
Applicability 337
Machines and Accessories . 338
Stretch Draw Forming . 338
Stretch Wrapping . 339
Compression Forming . 340
Radial Draw Forming 341
Stretch-Forming Machines for Large Parts . 342
Dies and Tooling . 342
Accuracy 342
Surface Finish 344
Stretch Forming Compared with Conventional
Drawing . 344
Operating Parameters 344
Superplastic Sheet Forming
A.K. Ghosh, C.H. Hamilton . 345
Requirements for Superplasticity 345
Characterization of Superplastic Alloys 346
Superplastic Forming Processes 350
Forming Equipment and Tooling 354
Thinning Characteristics 354
Cavitation and Cavitation Control 360
Manufacturing Practice . 360
Superplasticity in Iron-Base Alloys 361
Spinning
B.P. Bewlay, D.U. Furrer 367
Manual Spinning of Metallic Components . 368
Power Spinning . 369
Rubber-Pad Forming and Hydroforming 375
Rubber-Pad Forming . 375
Fluid-Cell Forming 378
Fluid Forming 381
Other Methods of Hydraulic Forming . 384
Failures in Rubber-Die Flanging . 385
Three-Roll Forming . 386
Machines 386
Selection of Machine . 388
Rolls . 388
Preparation of Blanks 389
Cold versus Hot Forming 389
Hot Forming Temperatures for Steel 390
Power Requirements 390
Forming Small Cylinders 391
Forming Large Cylinders 391
Forming Truncated Cones . 391
Forming Bars and Shapes 392
Out-of-Roundness 392
Forming Speed . 392
Roll Deflection 392
Alternative Processes 393
Safety . 393
Contour Roll Forming . 394
Materials 394
Process Variables . 395
Machines 395
Auxiliary Equipment . 397
Tooling 398
Forming Rolls 398
Tube and Pipe Rolling . 400
Roll Design for Tube Rolling 401
Welding . 401
Reshaping of Round Tubing . 402
Tolerances 402
Straightness 402
Quality and Accuracy 403
Surface Finish 403
Use of Computers 404
High-Velocity Metal Forming
Glenn S. Daehn 405
Background 405
High-Velocity Methods . 409
Forming Examples 415
Joining Examples 416
Technology Status . 416
Drop Hammer Forming . 419
Process Description . 419
Hammers for Forming . 419
Tooling 420
Lubricants 421
Blank Preparation 421
Drop Hammer Coining 421
Multistage Forming . 421
Control of Buckling . 421
Processing of Steels . 421
Processing of Aluminum Alloys . 422
Processing of Magnesium Alloys 422
Processing of Titanium Alloys 423
Drop Hammer Forming Limits . 423
Thermal Forming of Sheet and Plate
Alan Male 424
Energy Sources 424
The Basic Process 424
Mechanisms of Forming 424
Effect of Process Parameters on Forming . 425
Effect of Material Parameters on Forming . 426
Structure and Properties 426
Applications . 427
Peen Forming
R. Kopp, J. Schulz 429
Principle of the Process . 429
Simulation of Shot Peen Forming . 431
Equipment/Tooling .
Process Parameters and Controls 433
Materials 434
Specifications . 434
Typical Applications . 435
Age Forming
Jacob A. Kallivayalil . 438
Technical Issues 438
Prediction of Final Part Shape . 439
Constitutive Model Development . 440
Process Model for Age Forming . 440
Forming of Bar, Tube, and Wire . 443
Shearing of Bars and Bar Sections 445
Applicability 445
Punching and Shear Machines 446
Shear Blades 448
Blade Design and Production Practice 449
Double-Cut versus Single-Cut Shearing . 450
Nondistorted, Burr-Free Cuts 451
Shearing of Specific Forms . 451
Materials Handling 453
Impact Cutoff Machines 454
Bending of Bars and Bar Sections 456
Bending Methods . 456
Bending Machines . 457
Tools 459
Bend Allowance 460
Lubrication 460
Bending and Forming of Tubing . 461
Selection of Bending Method 461
Tools 462
Bending Tubing with a Mandrel . 463
Bending Tubing without a Mandrel 465
Machines 465
Hot Bending . 466
Tube Stock . 468
Bending Thin-Wall Tubes . 469
Lubrication for Tube Bending . 470
Tube Forming 470
Straightening of Bars, Shapes, and Long Parts . 472
Material Displacement Straightening 472
Straightening by Heating . 473
Straightening in Presses . 474
Parallel-Roll Straightening 476
Rotary Straighteners 477
Automatic Press Roll Straightening 479
Moving-Insert Straightening . 479
Parallel-Rail Straightening 480
Epicyclic Straightening . 480
Straightening in Bar Production 481
Straightening of Tubing 483
Effect of Tubing Material 483
Control of Straightening Pressure . 483
Press Straightening 483
Parallel-Roll Straightening 484
Two-Roll Rotary Straightening . 484
Multiple-Roll Rotary Straightening 484
Ovalizing in Rotary Straighteners . 485
Straightening in Tube Production . 486
Forming of Wire
David Berardis 487
Effect of Material Condition . 487
Rolling of Wire in a Turks Head Machine . 487
Spring Coiling . 488
Manual and Power Bending 490
Forming in Multiple-Slide Machines 490
Production Problems and Solutions 490
Lubricants 490
Sheet Forming of Specific Metals . 493
Forming of Carbon Steels
Mahmoud Y. Demeri 495
Presses and Dies 495
Lubrication 499
Sheet Steels 500
Formability of Steels . 503
Effects of Alloying 507
Effects on Formability . 509
Bending 512
Press Forming 518
Shells . 524
Forming of Advanced High-Strength Steels
Mahmoud Y. Demeri 530
Classification of HSS and AHSS 530
Review of HSS and AHSS Grades 531
Properties of HSS and AHSS 532
HSS and AHSS Automotive Applications 534
Stamping Issues and Forming Guidelines for HSS
and AHSS 535
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using HSS
and AHSS 537
Forming of Steel Tailor-Welded Blanks . 539
Welding Methods for Tailored Blanks 539
Selection of Welding Method . 539
Special Considerations for Welding and Weld Design 542
Formability Considerations . 543
Draw, Stretch, and Bend Considerations 544
Die and Press Considerations 544
Press Forming of Coated Steel
Brian Allen 547
Coated Steels . 547
Zinc-Coated Steels 547
Aluminum-Coated Steels 550
Tin-Coated Steels 551
Terne-Coated Steels 551
Nickel, Copper, and Chromium Plating 551
Organic-Coated Steels . 551
Forming of Steel Strip in Multiple-Slide Machines 554
Applicability 554
Multiple-Slide Machines . 554
Blanking 556
Forming . 557
xiiiAssembly Operations . 560
Multiple-Slide Rotary Forming Machines 561
Forming of Stainless Steel
Joseph A. Douthett 562
Selection of Alloy 562
Lubrication 565
Blanking and Piercing . 565
Press-Brake Forming . 566
Press Forming 568
Combined Operations in Compound and Progressive
Dies 569
Multiple-Slide Forming . 570
Deep Drawing 571
Spinning . 575
Rubber-Pad Forming . 577
Drop Hammer Forming . 578
Three-Roll Forming . 578
Contour Roll Forming . 579
Stretch Forming . 579
Bending of Tubing . 581
Other Forming Operations on Tubing . 581
Forming versus Machining 581
Forming of Aluminum Alloys
Pawel Kazanowski . 583
General Formability Considerations . 583
Formability Properties and Testing . 584
Equipment and Tools 585
Lubricants 586
Blanking and Piercing . 586
Forming Using Tailor-Welded Blanks 587
Bending 588
Press-Brake Forming . 588
Contour Roll Forming . 589
Deep Drawing 590
Spinning . 592
Stretch Forming . 592
Rubber-Pad Forming . 593
Warm Forming of Aluminum . 594
Superplastic Forming 594
Explosive Forming 596
Electrohydraulic Forming 596
Electromagnetic Forming 597
Hydraulic Forming 597
Forming by Shot Peening 597
Drop Hammer Forming . 598
Other Forming Methods 598
Flanging of Aluminum
Jian Cao . 600
Fracture 600
Wrinkling . 601
Springback . 601
Forming of Beryllium 605
Formability 605
Equipment and Tooling . 606
Heating Dies and Workpieces . 606
Stress Relieving . 606
Lubrication 606
Safety Practice . 606
Deep Drawing 606
Three-Roll Bending . 607
Stretch Forming . 607
Spinning . 607
Forming of Copper and Copper Alloys
Frank Mandigo, Derek Tyler 609
General Considerations . 609
Formability of Copper Alloys versus Other Metals 610
Blanking and Piercing . 611
Bending 612
Drawing and Stretch Forming . 614
Materials Characteristics and Effects of Alloy
Composition and Temper 615
Coining 618
Spinning . 618
Contour Roll Forming . 619
Rubber-Pad Forming . 619
Specialized Forming Operations . 619
Springback . 620
Forming of Larger Parts from Copper and Copper
Alloy Strips 620
Forming of Smaller Parts from Copper and Copper
Alloy Strips 622
Property Requirements for Various Formed
Products . 622
Forming of Magnesium Alloys
E. Doege, B.-A. Behrens, G. Kurz, O. Vogt 625
Deformation Mechanisms of Magnesium . 625
Influences on Formability 626
Cold Forming . 628
Hot Forming 629
Lubricants 634
Press-Brake Forming . 635
Deep Drawing 635
Manual Spinning . 636
Power Spinning . 636
Rubber-Pad Forming . 636
Stretch Forming . 637
Drop Hammer Forming . 638
Precision Forging . 638
Forming of Nickel and Cobalt Sheet Alloys
Howard W. Sizek . 640
Alloying and Strain Hardening . 641
Forming Practice for Age-Hardenable Alloys 641
Temper . 642
Formability 643
Galling . 644
Lubricants 644
Tools and Equipment 645
Shearing, Blanking, and Piercing 645
Deep Drawing 646
Spinning . 647
Explosive Forming 647
Bending Sheet, Strip, and Plate . 649
Expanding/Tube Forming 649
Forming of Refractory Metals
Louis E. Huber, Jr., Christopher A. Michaluk 652
Formability 652
Factors That Affect Mechanical Properties 653
Effect of Temperature on Formability 653
Forming of Sheet . 654
Forming of Preformed Blanks . 654
Lubricants 655
Forming of Titanium and Titanium Alloys
Joseph D. Beal, Rodney Boyer, Daniel Sanders . 656
Titanium Alloys . 656
Superplastic Alloys 657
General Formability 658
Sheet Preparation . 659
Trimming . 659
Tool Materials and Lubricants 660
Cold Forming . 660
Hot Forming 661
Superplastic Forming 662
Superplastic Forming/Diffusion Bonding . 663
Press-Brake Forming . 664
Power (Shear) Spinning . 665
Rubber-Pad Forming . 666
Stretch Forming . 666
Contour Roll Forming . 666
Creep Forming . 667
Vacuum Forming . 667
Drop Hammer Forming . 667
Joggling . 668
Dimpling 668
Explosive Forming 668
Bending of Tubing . 668
Formability Analysis . 671
Formability Testing of Sheet Metals
Michael Miles 673
Types of Forming 673
Formability Problems 674
Measurement of Deformation . 674
Representation of Strain 675
Effect of Materials Properties on Formability 675
Effect of Temperature on Formability 678
Types of Formability Tests . 679
Uniaxial Tension Testing 679
Plane-Strain Tension Testing 682
Biaxial Stretch Testing 683
Shear Testing . 685
Hardness Testing . 685
Simulative Tests 685
OSU Test . 687
Wrinkling and Buckling Tests 689
Forming Limit Diagrams . 690
Circle Grid Analysis and Use of FLDs . 690
Improvements to Forming Limit Diagram
Technology 692
Troubleshooting Formability Problems Using Strain Analysis
Daniel J. Schaeffler, Evan J. Vineberg . 697
Strain Calculations 697
Forming Limit Curves . 698
Forming Limit Diagrams . 698
Safety Margin or Safety Factor . 699
Types of Strain Analysis . 699
Bead Correction Factor . 702
TSA Application Examples . 703
Process Design for Sheet Forming . 707
Constitutive Equations
Amit Ghosh 709
Strain Hardening 709
Strain Rate Effects . 709
Isothermal Constitutive Model 711
Dynamic Recovery 716
Diffusional Flow Mechanisms 720
Physical Model for Superplastic Flow 725
Springback
R.H. Wagoner, J.F. Wang, M. Li . 733
Pure Bending—Classical Results 734
Approximations in Classical Bending Theory 737
Bending with Tension . 740
Applied Analysis of Simple Forming Operations . 742
Springback Control and Compensation 750
CAD/CAM and Die Face Design in Sheet Metal Forming
Ed Herman, Daniel J. Schaeffler, Evan J. Vineberg . 756
Grade Designations . 756
Materials Specifications 757
Forming Limit Curve 757
Friction 758
Product Development Process . 760
Direct Engineering for Formability . 761
CAD Data Sets 764
Computer-Aided Engineering in Sheet Metal Forming
Chung-Yeh Sa 766
Background 766
Methodology 769
Failure Criteria for Sheet Metal Forming . 772
Numerical Procedure for Sheet Metal Forming 774
Important Technical Issues 777
Metal-Forming Simulation Applications 778
Metal-Forming Simulation Systems 778
Forming Software Overview . 779
Modeling and Simulation of the Forming of Aluminum
Sheet Alloys
Jeong Whan Yoon, Fre´de´ric Barlat 792
Material Modeling . 792
Finite Element Modeling . 801
Application Examples . 806
Statistical Analysis of Forming Processes
Stuart Keeler 827
The Forming Process . 827
The Statistical Approach . 828
Historical Tracking 828
Experimental Design . 836
Process and Feedback Control for Manufacturing
Mahmoud Y. Demeri, Jian Cao, Ravi Venugopal . 840
Basic Concepts of Control Systems 840
xvDesigning a Feedback Controller 841
Application Example: Process Control for Sheet Metal
Forming . 842
Application Examples . 845
Rapid Prototyping for Sheet-Metal Forming
Lotta Lamminen Vihtonen, Boel Wadman, Torgeir
Svinning, Rein Ku¨ttner 851
Low-Cost Tooling and Flexible Sheet-Forming
Processes 851
Incremental Forming . 852
Reference Information 859
Glossary of Terms . 861
Useful Formulas for Deformation Analysis and Workability
Testing . 887
Steel Hardness Conversions 892
Nonferrous Hardness Conversions 898
Metric Conversion Guide 901
Abbreviations and Symbols . 904
Index .
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