Aluminum Extrusion Technology

Aluminum Extrusion Technology
اسم المؤلف
Pradip K. Saha
التاريخ
24 مايو 2019
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Aluminum Extrusion Technology
Pradip K. Saha
Contents
Preface . viii
CHAPTER 1: Fundamentals of Extrusion 1
Definition of Extrusion . 1
Classification of Extrusion Processes . 2
Conventional Direct Extrusion . 3
Billet-on-Billet Extrusion . 3
Indirect Extrusion 5
Mechanics of Extrusion 6
Plastic Deformation and Metal Flow 6
Plastic Strain and Strain Rate . 10
Friction Models 12
Extrusion Pressure 16
Analysis of Extrusion Pressure 19
Extrusion Force 22
Effect of Principal Variables on Extrusion 22
Principal Variables . 23
CHAPTER 2: Thermodynamics in Extrusion 29
Extrusion Thermodynamics 31
Thermodynamics Model . 32
Influence of Principal Variables on Temperature Rise 36
Temperature Measurements 37
Isothermal Extrusion 45
CHAPTER 3: Extrusion Press and
Auxiliary Equipment . 55
Types of Extrusion Presses 56
Press Selection and Specification . 64
Extrusion Press Components . 66
Auxiliary Equipment . 73
Integrated System 83
CHAPTER 4: Extrusion Die and Tooling 87
Terminology and Functions of Extrusion Dies and Tooling 89
Direct Extrusion 89
Indirect Extrusion . 91
Die Design 92
Die Layout 93
vBearing Length . 95
Die Making 105
Die Correction 105
Factors for Consideration in Die Correction 107
Solid Die . 108
Hollow Die . 108
Die Materials and Surface Treatment . 109
Selection of Die Material 109
Surface Hardening and Treatment 109
Tribology in Extrusion Dies . 110
Wear in an Extrusion Die . 111
CHAPTER 5: Billet Casting Principles and Practice . 119
Principle of Billet Making 119
Casting Practices 122
Casting Variables 122
Charge Material . 124
Melting and Holding . 124
Fluxing and Degassing 125
Grain Refining 127
Filtration System 129
Vertical Casting System 130
Horizontal Casting System 133
Homogenization of Billet . 136
Casting Defects . 140
CHAPTER 6: Extrusion of Soft- and
Medium-Grade Alloys . 149
Alloy and Extrudability 150
Product Shapes and Sizes 152
Analysis of Useful Extrusion Parameters 154
Extrusion Runout 155
Extrusion Pressure . 157
Ram and Extrusion Speed Control 158
Butt Thickness Control . 162
Production Practice 165
Extrusion of Solid Shapes . 165
Extrusion of Tubes and Hollow Shapes 167
Productivity Control . 169
Minimize Avoidable Scrap 170
Maximize the Billet Length 170
Optimization of Extrusion Speed and Temperature . 170
Auxiliary Operations 172
Stretching 172
Sawing . 173
Heat Treatment . 174
viMechanical and Physical Tests 176
Extrusion Defects . 177
CHAPTER 7: Extrusion of Hard Alloys 187
Alloys and Extrudability . 188
Product Shapes and Sizes . 189
Extrusion Practices 189
Extrusion Parameters . 189
Press Control . 190
Process Variables and Control . 193
Heat Treatment 193
Auxiliary Processes 195
Extrusion Defects . 195
Quality Assurance . 204
Test Methods . 204
Extrusion of Aluminum Matrix Composites . 204
Billet Metallurgy and Flow Stress 205
Die Materials and Die Design 206
Extrusion Process and Defects . 207
Forming of Extrusion . 208
Powder Metallurgy Alloy Extrusions . 208
CHAPTER 8: Process Control in the
Aluminum Extrusion Plant . 213
Extrusion Plant and Processes . 215
Billet-Making Variables 216
Extrusion Die Variables 218
Extrusion Press and Auxiliary Equipment . 223
Extrusion Process Variables 223
Auxiliary Process Variables . 223
Heat Treatment and Mechanical Testing 223
Surface Treatment of Extruded Shapes 229
Quality Control Framework . 230
CHAPTER 9: Statistical Process and
Quality Control 233
Basis of the Statistical Control Chart . 236
Quality Control in Billet Making 237
Quality Control of Dies 239
Quality Control of Extrusion 239
Total Quality Management . 239
CHAPTER 10: Research and Development 245
Extrusion Presses and Auxiliary Equipment . 245
Tooling and Die Technology 246
Alloy Making and Billet Casting . 247
Extrusion Process Technology 247
Process and Quality Control .
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