Advanced Biomaterials and Biodevices

Advanced Biomaterials and Biodevices
اسم المؤلف
Ashutosh Tiwari and Anis N. Nordin
التاريخ
1 يناير 2019
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Advanced Biomaterials and Biodevices
من سلسلة علم المواد المتقدمة
Advanced Material Series
Ashutosh Tiwari and Anis N. Nordin
Contents
Preface xv
Part 1: Cutting-edge Biomaterials 1
1 Frontiers for Bulk Nanostructured Metals in
Biomedical Applications 3
T.C. Lowe and R.Z. Valiev
1.1 Introduction to Nanostructured Metals 3
1.1.1 Importance of Nanostructured Biomedical Metals 3
1.1.2 Brief Overview of the Evolution of Bulk
Nanostructured Metals 5
1.1.3 Desirable Characteristics of Nanostructured
Metals for Medical Applications 6
1.2 Nanostructured Metals as Biomaterials for Medical
Applications 10
1.2.1 Nanostructured Titanium and its Alloys 11
1.2.2 Stainless Steels 22
1.2.3 Cobalt-Chromium Alloys 23
1.2.4 Magnesium Alloys 25
1.3 Summary and Conclusions 29
Acknowledgment 30
References 30
2 Stimuli-responsive Materials Used as Medical Devices
in Loading and Releasing of Drugs 53
H. Iv?n Meléndez-Ortiz and Emilio Bucio
2.1 Introduction 54
2.2 Classifcation of Materials for Bioapplications 55
2.2.1 Polymers 55
2.2.2 Ceramics 55
2.2.3 Composites 56
2.2.4 Metals 56vi Contents
2.3 Responsive Polymers in Controlled Drug Delivery 56
2.3.1 Temperature-responsive Polymers 57
2.3.2 pH-responsive Polymers 58
2.3.3 Electric-responsive Polymers 58
2.3.4 Magneto-responsive Polymers 59
2.3.5 Photo-responsive Polymers 59
2.4 Types of Medical Devices 60
2.4.1 Stents 60
2.4.2 Cannulas 60
2.4.3 Catheters 61
2.4.4 Cardiac Pumps 61
2.4.5 Prostheses 62
2.4.6 Sutures 62
2.5 Materials Used in Medical Devices 62
2.5.1 Elastomers for Biomedical Devices 63
2.5.2 Shape-memory Polymer Systems Intended for
Biomedical Devices 63
2.5.3 Metallic Materials for Biomedical Devices 63
2.5.4 Ceramic Materials for Biomedical Devices 64
2.5.5 Sol–gel Materials for Biomaterials Devices 64
2.6 Stimuli-responsive Polymers Used in
Medical Devices 65
2.6.1 Advancements in Design of Medical Device 66
2.6.2 Drug Delivery Improved by Devices 67
2.7 Infections Associated with Medical Devices 68
2.7.1 Antibiotic-loaded Medical Devices 69
2.7.2 Bioflm Formation 70
2.7.3 Approaches for the Prevention of Device-related
Infections 72
Acknowledgements 72
References 72
3 Recent Advances with Liposomes as Drug Carriers 79
Shravan Kumar Sriraman and Vladimir P. Torchilin
3.1 Introduction 80
3.2 Passive Targeting of Liposomes 83
3.2.1 Plain and Cationic Liposomes 83
3.2.2 Polymer-Coated Long-Circulating Liposomes 84
3.2.3 Stimuli-Sensitive and Triggered Release Liposomes 86Contents vii
3.3 Actively Targeted Liposomes 88
3.3.1 Antibody-Targeted Liposomes 90
3.3.2 Single Ligand-Targeted Liposomes 91
3.3.3 Dual-Targeted Liposomes 94
3.4 Multifunctional Liposomes 95
3.5 Conclusions and Future Directions 98
References 101
4 Fabrication, Properties of Nanoshells with Controllable
Surface Charge and its Applications 121
Parul Khurana, Sheenam Tatai and Dinesh Kumar
4.1 What is Nanotechnology? 122
4.2 Nanomaterials and Teir Uses 122
4.3 Classifcation of Nanomaterials 124
4.4 Nanoparticles 126
4.5 Nanocomposites Material 128
4.6 Spherical Silica Particles 129
4.7 Silver Nanoparticles 132
4.8 Gold Nanoparticles 134
4.9 SiO
[email protected] and [email protected] Core-shell Nanocomposites 137
4.10 Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering 139
4.11 Conclusions 141
Acknowledgements 141
References 141
5 Chitosan as an Advanced Healthcare Material 147
M.A. Jardine and S. Sayed 147
5.1 Introduction 147
5.1.1 Chitosan 148
5.1.2 General Applications 149
5.2 Chemical Modifcation and Analysis 150
5.2.1 Characterization 151
5.3 Chitosan Co-polymers 154
5.4 Nanoparticles 156
5.5 Nanofbres (Electrospinning) 158
5.6 Visualising Nanostructures 160
5.7 Biomedical Applications of Chitosan 163
5.7.1 Current Technology Status 164
5.7.2 Wound Healing/Tissue Regeneration 166viii Contents
5.7.3 Targeted Delivery Agents 168
5.7.4 Antimicrobial Studies 171
5.8 Conclusion 175
References 175
6 Chitosan and Low Molecular Weight Chitosan: Biological
and Biomedical Applications 183
Nazma N. Inamdar and Vishnukant Mourya
6.1 Introduction 184
6.2 Biodegradability of Chitin and Chitosan 184
6.3 Biocomapatibility and Toxicology of Chitin
and Chitosan 186
6.4 Chitosan as Antimicrobial Agent 187
6.4.1 Mode of Action of Antimicrobial Action 188
6.4.2 Factors A?ecting Antimicrobial Activity 191
6.5 Chitosan as Haemostatic Agent 196
6.6 Chitosan as Immunity Modulator 198
6.7 Chitosan as Adjuvant 202
6.8 Chitosan as Wound Healing Accelerator 203
6.9 Chitosan as Lipid Lowering Agent & Dietary Supplement
in Aid of Weight Loss 211
6.10 Chitosan as Antioxidant 214
6.11 Conclusion 220
References 221
7 Anticipating Behaviour of Advanced Materials in Healthcare 243
Tanvir Arfn and Simin Fatma
7.1 Introduction 244
7.2 Te Evolution of the Bio-advance Materials Fields 246
7.2.1 First Generation 247
7.2.2 Second Generation 247
7.2.3 Tird Generation 247
7.3 Evaluation in Humans 247
7.4 Te Natural History of Diseases 248
7.4.1 Risk Factors 248
7.4.2 Subject and Observer Bias 248
7.4.3 Basic Process in Drug 249
7.5 Enzyme 249
7.5.1 Enzyme Units and Concentrations 252Contents ix
7.5.2 Assay of Enzyme Activity 254
7.5.3 Enzymes in Health Sciences 258
7.6 Biosensor 259
7.7 Platinum Material Used in Medicine 267
7.8 Antibody 268
7.8.1 Antibodies-Production and Properties 268
7.9 Antibody microarrays 275
7.10 Conclusion 278
References 279
Part 2: Innovative Biodevices 289
8 Label-Free Biochips 291
Anis N. Nordin
8.1 Introduction 291
8.2 Label-Free Analysis 292
8.3 Electrochemical Biosensors 293
8.4 Acoustic Wave-based Mass Sensors 297
8.5 Bulk Acoustic Wave Sensors 297
8.6 Surface Acoustic Wave Mass Sensors 300
8.7 Conclusion and Future Prospects 302
References 303
9 Polymer MEMS Sensors 305
V.Seena, Prasenjith Ray, Prashanthi Kovur, Manoj Kandpal
and V. Ramgopal Rao
9.1 Introduction 306
9.2 Polymer Nanocomposite Piezoresistive Microcantilever
Sensors 309
9.2.1 Preparation and Characterization of SU-8/CB
Nanocomposite 310
9.2.2 Design and Fabrication of Polymer Nanocomposite
Cantilevers 314
9.2.3 Characterization of Polymer Nanocomposite
Cantilevers 316
9.3 Organic CantiFET 318
9.3.1 Process Integration of Organic CantiFET 320
9.3.2 Characterization of Organic CantiFET 322
9.4 Polymer Microcantilever Sensors with Embedded
Al-doped ZnO Transistor 324x Contents
9.5 Piezoelectric Nanocomposite (SU-8/ZNO) Tin
Films Studies and Teir Integration with Piezoelectric
MEMS Devices 327
9.5.1 Fabrication and Mechanical Characterization 328
9.5.2 Fabrication of Polymer (SU-8) Piezoelectric (ZnO)
Composite MEMS Cantilevers 331
9.5.3 Characterization of SU-8/ZnO Cantilevers as
Vibration Sensors: 332
9.6 Polymer Nanomechanical Cantilever Sensors for
Detection of Explosives 334
References 337
10 Assembly of Polymers/Metal Nanoparticles and their
Applications as Medical Devices 343
Magdalena Stevanovi?
10.1 Introduction 344
10.2 Platinum Nanoparticles 346
10.3 Gold Nanoparticles 347
10.4 Silver Nanoparticles 350
10.5 Assembly of Polymers/Silver Nanoparticles 351
10.6 Conclusion 357
Acknowledgements 357
References 357
11 Combination of Molecular Imprinting and Nanotechnology:
Beginning of a New Horizon 367
Rashmi Madhuri, Ekta Roy, Kritika Gupta and Prashant
K. Sharma
11.1 Introduction 368
11.1.1 What is “Imprinting”? 368
11.1.2 Te MIP ‘Rule of Six’ 372
11.1.3 Downsides of “Te Imprinted Materials” 372
11.1.4 How to Overcome the Problems 373
11.2 Classifcation of Imprinted Nanomaterials 374
11.2.1 Imprinting Onto the Nanostructure Surfaces 375
11.2.2 Tin Film Imprinting 410
11.3 Imprinted Materials at Nanoscale 412
11.3.1 Imprinted Nanoparticle 412
11.3.2 Nanosphere 415Contents xi
11.3.3 Comparative Study Between Micro- and
Nano-imprnted Materials 416
11.3.4 Imprinted Nanogel 417
11.3.5 Nano Imprint Lithography 418
11.4 Conclusions & Future Outlook 418
Acknowledgements 419
References 419
12 Prussian Blue and Analogues: Biosensing Applications
in Health Care 423
Salazar P, Mart?n M, O’Neill RD, Lorenzo-Luis P, Roche R
and Gonz?lez-Mora JL
12.1 Introduction 424
12.2 General Aspects of Prussian Blue and Other
Hexacyanoferrates 426
12.2.1 Overview 426
12.2.2 Chemical and Structure of Prussian Blue and Its
Analogues 426
12.2.3 pH Stability and Deposition Method 427
12.3 Prussian Blue: Hydrogen Peroxide Electrocatalysis 428
12.4 Prussian Blue: Biosensor Applications 430
12.4.1 Prussian Blue and Analogues Enzyme System 432
12.5 Prussian Blue: Immunosensor Applications 439
12.5.1 ?-fetoprotein Antigen 440
12.5.2 Carcinoembryonic Antigen 441
12.5.3 Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 442
12.5.4 Neuron-specifc Enolase Antigen 443
12.5.5 Carcinoma Antigen 125 443
12.5.6 Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Antigen 444
12.5.7 Prostate Specifc Antigen 445
12.5.8 Hepatitis B Antigen 445
12.6 Conclusions 446
Acknowledgment 446
References 447
13 Efciency of Biosensors as New Generation of Analytical
Approaches at the Biochemical Diagnostics of Diseases 451
N.F. Starodub and M. D. Melnychuk
13.1 Introduction 452
13.2 General Approaches for the Development of Optical
Immune Biosensors 452xii Contents
13.2.1 Fiber Optic Immune Biosensors for Diagnostics 452
13.2.2 Fiber Pptic Immune Biosensor Based on the
Principle of the “Evanescent” Wave 456
13.2.3 Immune Biosensor Based on the E?ect of the
Enhanced Chemiluminescence (ChL) [6] 458
13.2.4 Immune Biosensor Based on the
Photoluminescence (PhL) of Porous
Silicon (PS) [9–17] 462
13.2.5 Direct Electrometric Approach to Register
Interaction Between Biological Molecules [18, 19] 466
13.2.6 Immune Biosensor Based on the Surface
Plasmon Resonance (SPR) 467
13.3 Electrochemical Enzymatic Biosensors Based on the
Ion-sensitive Field F?ect Transistors (ISFETs) 471
13.3.1 Analysis of the Urea Level in Blood [46] 472
13.3.2 Determination of the Glucose Level in Blood [47] 473
13.4 Multi-parametrical Biosensors [49–51] 475
13.5 Modeling Selective Sites and their Application in
the Sensory Technology 478
13.5.1 Template Sensor: Principle of Creation and
Characteristics of Work and Determination
of Some Biochemical Substances [52] 478
13.5.2 Artifcial Selective Sites in the Sensors Intended
for the Control of Some Biochemical Indexes [54] 480
13.6 Conclusion 481
References 482
14 Nanoparticles: Scope in Drug Delivery 487
Megha Tanwar, Jaishree Meena and Laxman S. Meena
14.1 Introduction 488
14.2 Di?erent Forms of Nanoparticles as
Drug Delivery 489
14.3 Tuberculosis Targeting Nanoparticles 493
14.3.1 Action of anti-TB drugs 495
14.4 Cancer & Tumor Targeting Nanoparticles 505
14.5 Conclusion 511
References 512Contents xiii
15 Smart Polypeptide Nanocarriers for Malignancy Terapeutics 523
Jianxun Ding, Di Li, Xiuli Zhuang and Xuesi Chen
15.1 Introduction 523
15.2 Smart Polypeptide Nanovehicles for
Antitumor Drug Delivery 525
15.2.1 Polypeptide Micelles 525
15.2.2 Polypeptide Vesicles 529
15.2.3 Polypeptide Nanogels 530
15.2.4 Other Smart Polypeptide Nanovehicles 538
15.3 Conclusions and Perspectives 539
References 539
Index 54
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